The UN, Separatism & the Mechanics of Independence

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The UN, Separatism & the Mechanics of Independence

e-Con e-News 17-23 January 2021

Buying off local military officers by foreign agents is examined in an Island story this week (see ee Sovereignty, Deeper scrutiny of ‘intelligence related matters’)

     Also, not a week goes by without some company (purportedly local but with foreign links) publicly displaying their philanthropy towards the security forces, generously offering advice, equipment, health supplies etc.

     Meanwhile a massive ‘data dump’ exposes English spies buying off military and police in Lebanon, as well as English terrorism in Syria, showing the extents of such bribery to recolonize our countries (ee Sovereignty, Lebanon).

     It’s not just the US buying politicians, officers and officials. Recent media unison about how great US democracy and its ‘institutions’ are, also exposes what great stooges our scribes and economists are.

• The sheer creativity and cunning of the trader class, their politicians and their courts, to subvert any progressive legislation that will advance the country, is most evident in what happened to the Paddy Lands Act (PLA) of 1958 passed by the SWRD Bandaranaike government (ee Focus).

     England still controlled the legislature, long after 1948 independence: an English Appeal Court ruled, ‘Nought’ is not a number, to sabotage the PLA’s Cultivation Committees that would have provided security to impoverished tenant farmers and inspired more productive agriculture. A story worth retelling, especially when colonial forces still wish us to be ruled by foreign courts!

     This ee therefore looks again at the PLA, and what happened to it. As well as the tragedy of Sinhala cultivators in the East after the 1818 and 1848 uprisings (also see ee, 8 & 15 Aug 2020). Modernizing agriculture and enriching the cultivator is crucial for a rural home market, 70% of Sri Lankans. The great work of economists like GVS de Silva, and politicians like Philip Gunawardena on the PLA, also must be given their due. Those who oppose ‘military rule’, ignore that the only way colonial and feudal practices were eliminated in now developed countries, was by military rule!

Congo, SL & UN – The murder of the Congo’s first independent Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was committed in January 1961 (16 months after the murder of Sri Lanka’s first independent PM, SWRD Bandaranaike) during a ‘separatist’ rebellion in the province of Katanga against his government, supported by Belgium (now home of the EU). His murder was planned by the European powers (US, Belgium, England, France, etc.). They also murdered the UN Secretary General, 8 months later, because they felt the UN was not compliant enough with imperial dictat in the Congo.

     Most commemorations of Lumumba do not discuss the advanced Congo working class from which he derived his genius and power. So ee reproduces a very interesting excerpt on the Congo from SBD de Silva’s The Political Economy of Underdevelopment (see ee Focus) on the role of the whites in that ‘secessionist movement’ during Congo’s battle for independence: Flemish settlers from Belgium had been implanted in Katanga. SB writes of Flemish settler conflicts with the Belgian government’s stunting of a fabulously wealthy economy, their attempts to put the Congo people onto reservations like in Canada, their inability to exterminate the Congo people, the growth of a technically skilled Congo working class that was denied all rights, the role of the Évolués (kalu suddhas) and an alien merchant class. SB also detailed how one industry leads to another, midst growth of a home market.

     This week saw the 60th anniversary of Lumumba’s murder, heralding 6 more decades of mass murder promoted by European powers. Over 6 million have been killed in the Congo – a genocide ignored by the media, who see no ‘holocaust’ or ‘fascism’ there. This may feel familiar to ee readers.

     This week also saw the 47th anniversary of the murder of Guinea-Bissau leader Amilcar Cabral in 1973, just before their independence, which sparked the expulsion of Portugal from Africa. Also 97 years since the liberator of the USSR, VI Lenin passed away. Lenin too was shot (and injured) by an English agent. The Slavic people were seen as the ‘White Negroes of Europe’.

• The promise to regulate private banks and finance companies is a pipe dream for they have innumerable ways to undermine this. Decision-making on investment and jobs must be taken out of the hands of the capitalist sector. Bankers must not only be fined but jailed. All this is easier said than done! But, this is inevitable, now or – after much suffering – later (see ee Economists, Regulating the modern banking system does not work)

     Rather than building luxury hotels and condos, public housing is the great need of the hour. The crowding of workers in their homes and at work has been exposed for the health hazard it is, not just to themselves.

• After 24 hours of news per day on how terrible Trump was, we get 24 hours a day of how great Biden is. Yet a butcher cannot become a Buddha. US imperialism is alive and kickin’. Our job is to develop a vaccine to overcome not just Covid.

     Curiously, it’s also dawned on some fans of the white West that the USA is not a democracy at all. Why does the obvious take so long?

Contents:

A1. Reader Comments

• Spice-drying machines, anyone? • Jaffna Memorial Farce • Navy’s Role

A2. Quotes of the Week

• SL’s Luxury Class • CEOs – 4th branch of government? • Recession Due to Investment Slump • Stock Market Binge

A3. Random Notes

• Media Spreading Falsehoods • The Chinese Debt Myth • IMF Structural Adjustment • Stock Exchange Flush • Settler & Colonial Economies • Rothschild & Israel • Évolué & Kalusuddha

B. ee Focus    

B1. A Peep into the Paddy Lands Act, 1958 – Bandu de Silva

B2. Implementing the PLA 1958: Cultivation Committees – Chandra Arulpragasam

B3. Modern Industrialization of the Congo – SBD de Silva

C. News Index

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A1. Reader Comments

ee thanks Readers who send articles of interest. Please excerpt or summarize what is important about any article sent, or your comments, and place the e-link at the end. It’s better to email.

• ‘Due to the unseasonal heavy rains, we have not been able to dry the spices we harvest. Someone could easily make community spice-drying machines.’

• ‘Re: Jaffna University Memorial: These are all staged events… well, in advance… choreographed too… All this in lieu of a more important national conversation… “The EU office in SL had tweeted earlier that the EU was saddened by the destruction of the monument at Jaffna University… The meeting takes place ahead of the UN Human Rights Council session in Geneva which begins in Feb.’ There’s no defence against these setup events?’

• ‘The biography written by Admiral Vasantha Karannagoda should be translated into English. It’s a behind-the-scenes narrative of the Navy’s role in winning the war against the LTTE.’

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A2. Quotes of the Week_

• ‘Structural Adjustment provisions provided loans and ensured they benefited a class of rich people, who enjoyed luxury imports, who were allowed foreign exchange to spend abroad, go on expensive holidays, send off their children to foreign universities, all done with the funds obtained on loans. It was inevitable countries would fall into debt as the funds were not used productively. The foreign exchange that came in as a loan was also somehow sent back to the Developed Countries in some form or other leaving our country saddled with the debt.’ (see ee Economists, Notorious)

• ‘CEOs have become the 4th branch of government’ (ee Sovereignty, Corporate America)

• ‘The Great Recession and the subsequent weak recovery was not the result of consumption contracting, but investment slumping’ (thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2012/11/30/us-its-investment-not-consumption).

• ‘Indeed, what has happened to all these credit injections is that they have been used by banks and big businesses to speculate in the stock and bond markets rather than to pay wages, preserve jobs or raise investment. After the initial panic of the pandemic in March, the US stock market has gone on an unparalleled binge.’ (ee Economists, Biden’s 4 years)

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A3. Random Notes (‘Seeing Number in Chaos’)_

• The public capitalist media is almost totally unreliable. The only reason ee says ‘almost totally’ is because it is reliable in ensuring people are kept confused. ee qualifies ‘capitalist media’ with ‘public’, because we assume they must privately tell themselves and their capitalist class some truth.

     The latest is the Rs100,000 bail demanded of a man for stealing – was it one coconut or 21? Even this is unclear: ‘Suspect arrested for stealing 21 coconuts released on bail’ (Hiru)… ‘100,000 rupees bail for stealing a coconut’ (Daily Mirror). The owner of the coconut trees says this was not an isolated incident, and the media is sensationalizing the truth.

     The other favorite trope is ‘Chinese workers’ and ‘Chinese Debt’. Take this Wijeya Group’s Financial Times columnist, Ameer Ali, all the way from ‘School of Business & Governance, Murdoch University, Western Australia.’ Full of mischievous intent, he does not mention the numbers of clearly more numerous Indian and Bangladeshi workers, but insists ‘Chinese are working in 10,000s in China-initiated joint projects’, not saying exactly where either.

     As for debt, again, the capitalist media has no interest in detailing the debt or discussing International sovereign bonds mainly owed to US and European banks. Garvin Karunaratne’s essay on the “notorious Structural Adjustment of the IMF” is a must-read on the origins of this debt business. (see ee Economists)

• Tabloid sensationalism diverts from capitalism. Furious texts warning about thieves & fraudsters roaming Colombo streets pepper phone screens… but none about the legal exploitation by the Planters’ Association and the Employers’ Federation. Many news stories about the wage issue, but only an occasional last line tell of the PA and EFC refusing to accede to budget proposals/promises.

     The Planters’ Association even claims they’re ‘going to’ take steps to get beyond the colonial plantation game, but they do not specify what exactly. Writers lamenting the state of the workers do not examine the refusal to mechanize. Meanwhile, a game is being played out, with India backing politicians to take over estate lands for their ‘housing aid’, and the PA trying to appear as heroic defenders of our land and sovereignty (ee Workers, Mob).

The Stock Exchange is flush with money and people are texting each other to play the casino. Flush, indeed! Yet merchants are refusing to make productive investment. The stock market will reward some people greater and greater amounts of fictitious money for the moment. This will divert even more money towards unproductive assets and cause collapse, when fund managers refuse to roll over debt…

• Nationalists who oppose the rule of unelected INGOs, foreign-funded or any other, must also oppose the rule of foreign-funded, or any other, private banks and corporations. The capitalist media wails daily to privatize public corporations and throw them onto the stock market for piranha to eviscerate.

     NGOs are a classic symbol of privatization! And a joke. For most are funded by foreign governments acting as fronts for private corporations! Recall, Unilever’s CEO declared: ‘We’re the world’s biggest NGO.’ Unilever, heavily dedicated to continuing the domination of Sri Lanka by the import-export colonial plantation economy, has captured our home market, which could be the basis of any modern industrialization.

• SBD de Silva observed the greatest resistance to colonial rule sometimes came from white settlers themselves, especially where there was an entrenched white working class: eg, the US breaking away from England, enabled other white settler colonies to gain measures of economic independence, which meant industrial development. The status of this white working class in settler societies became news in recent days, based on privileges over Black workers.

      SB divided the world’s economies (especially based on their investment patterns) into 3 types: non-settler colonies like SL, settler-colonies like the Congo (where local people still the majority, but with a significant white settler minority), and the regions of new settlement (USA, Canada, Australia, where the original people were reduced to a minority). No white settlers meant no ‘development’ was allowed! See how industrialization really works: ee Focus, Congo

KaluSuddha? Évolué: a colonial French label referring to ‘native’ African or Asian who had ‘evolved’ by being Europeanized through education or assimilation, accepting European values and ways. Most commonly used in Belgian and French colonial empires. Évolués spoke French, followed European (rather than customary) laws, usually in white-collar jobs (tho rarely higher than clerks), lived mainly in urban areas of the colony. Compare this term to the widespread use of ‘Developed’ etc. (ee Focus, Congo)

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B. Special Focus_

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B1. A Peep into the Paddy Lands Act, 1958 (Bandu de Silva)

The Paddy Lands Act (PLA) of 1958 was vehemently opposed by the UNP and the Federal Party – both representing capitalist interests, and in the case of the FP, also Vellala caste interests – actively encouraging non-compliance and sabotage.

     PM SWRD Bandaranaike also saw that some in his own party would ‘accept something when you can’t refuse it and then plot in every conceivable way to make the implementation of it impossible’. Even when a member of the UNP, SWRD had proposed nationalization of all cultivated paddy land, but the party leadership had opposed it.

     Big landowners acted as if no PLA had been passed, as was noted in the Eastern Province. Expert notaries public could prepare fake deeds. ‘Today one speaks of land belonging to this community and that community but the truth could be something else.’

     The PLA was the first most progressive act of legislation passed by the post-Independence Sri Lankan legislature, aimed at providing safeguards to tenant farmers, with incentives for increased production.

     JR Jayawardene and the Lake House Group under [Ranil’s father] Esmond Wickremasinghe strategized to spread dissension within the government ranks over the PLA, calling it ‘totalitarian legislation’.

     Philip Gunawardena, even in the State Council, had been an ardent critic of Minister of Agriculture DS Senanayake’s colonization schemes, calling the irrigation schemes wasteful, with many people ending up as tenant farmers.

     The same had happened to individual settlers brought to Trincomalee district from Jaffna by early English administrators. Their land passed onto Jaffna (tobacco-rich) capitalist Chettiyars and Nadars who had obtained larger allotments, with settlers becoming labourers in their own allotments.

     Philip had pointed out there was plenty of wet zone land, where 1000s of people could be employed if flood protection was provided to cultivated land. He pointed out to Minister DS Senanayake that the laws of capitalism operated in the paddy cultivating areas, and paddy could not be grown on a small unit.

     He pointed out that the minister was unaware of a recent Economic Survey report [Economic Survey of Ceylon for 1947, unpublished, prepared for the ECAFE Secretariat by BB Das Gupta, first director of research at the Central bank, and later first professor of Economics at Colombo University].

     The 2 main economic difficulties were: certain villagers were landless or had insufficient amounts of land, impeding the extension of cultivation; the backwardness of agricultural techniques, with the existing resources and land not being fully utilized. The Economic Survey and their practical experiences had informed the MEP’s PLA, not some theoretical construct based on socialist principles.

     The first major feature of the 1958 PLA was the provision of permanent security to tenant farmers who formed about 51% of cultivators (400,000 holdings, of about 2 million people), shifting them from the position of tenants under the whim of landlords, to give assurance of security of tenancy so they would have incentive to improve the productivity of the land through increase in fertilizer application and other inputs.

     The new Act went well beyond the conditional security of the earlier PLA Act of 1953. The second objective was to regulate the rents payable by the tenant to the landowner. The owner had the right to transfer the land but could not interfere with the cultivation work of the tenant. The Cultivation Committees set up for every 150-200 acres, and elected by tenant farmers and owners, were to help the tenant to obtain credit facilities, to secure tractors, marketing facilities, which were missing in the colonization schemes.

     Philip was against small peasant proprietorship. He was not for fragmentation, and even referred to impending legislation to prevent fragmentation of estates and plantations. Modern times made it necessary to work the land in large units, and to acquire the productive advantages from such scale. The PLA Bill was trying to achieve that by introducing changes in tenure rights and relations.

     The capitalists instead argued this amounted to ‘collectivization.’ Philip said that was not the intention of the law. It was not something that politicians or officials could impose at their will. It was cultivators who would have to decide.

     The PLA’s appointment of Cultivation Committees was made controversial, and cabinet colleagues demanded voting rights of 25% for landlords, including absentee landlords.

     In Batticaloa and Ampara districts, Sinhala farmers who were the original owners of land under old Sinhala custom had been dispossessed by the English and made tenant cultivators on their original land for several reasons [including the imposition of compound interest on Sinhala cultivators, making them lose their lands. imposed by English courts on behalf of Muslim traders; in original Sinhala tradition, debts that couldn’t be paid due to bad harvests, etc., were simply postponed to the next year – ee].

     Sinhala land had been forcibly transferred by the English after the Uva Rebellion of 1848 to Muslim traders who had assisted the English in suppressing the rebellion. This was documented by John Davy and SM Burrows. (When the PLA 1958 was passed they were unable to press these claims as the landlords in this district were powerful and officialdom was corrupt). But since there was a shortage of workers, they had become agricultural workers employed on wages or other terms imposed by ‘new’ landowners. The Kandyan workers came during the cultivating and harvesting seasons and lived with their temporary Tamil/Veddah wives. ‘It is among them that the LTTE found easy recruits and the early suicide-bombers.’

     In the Trincomalee District, the original landowners of the entire interior villages of Kaddukulam were 100% Sinhala (derivatively called ‘Bayyas’). They lost their lands to Tamil boutique keepers, teachers and public servants, itinerant Muslim vendors and also low-country Sinhala people. The PLA 1958 failed to correct this situation. Nevertheless, the majority of tenant farmers of Sri Lanka, including those in majority Sinhala areas, will remember Philip Gunawardena ‘for this singular contribution towards the amelioration of their lot as former tenants who were at the mercy of landlords, and to improve the paddy cultivation in the country’.

– adapted from Bandu de Silva’s A Peep into the Paddy Lands Act, 1958, The Island, 28 March 2008

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B2. Implementing the PLA 1958: Cultivation Committees – Chandra Arulpragasam

Introduction: a Personal Note – In the CCS in early 1958, I was appointed Deputy Commissioner of the Agrarian Services Dept, in charge of implementing the Paddy Lands Act of 1958. In setting out to draft the Administrative Regulations under the Act, I came across a number of structural, legal and operational considerations, which probably had not been foreseen by its authors. This was probably the first time that it was being looked at by an administrator with field experience – and… by someone who was new to the Paddy Lands Act and to its thinking.

     First, from a conceptual side, the concept and design of the Act did not fit, e.g., the agrarian conditions of the Batticaloa district, which raised some problems of implementation. Secondly, because of the Act’s contentious nature, its legal provisions were likely to be challenged and its implementation obstructed. This made it necessary to examine its provisions from an adversarial point of view – which revealed many legal and administrative vulnerabilities. Thirdly, there were new problems of implementation: the Act safeguarded tenants, but there were no records of tenants or of landlords. New records of land ownership, tenancy, etc., would have to be created from scratch before implementation could even begin.

     In comparison, the land records in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh had been built up over a period of 200 years by the English imperial power. How could such records be created within 6 months before the Act would become operational in 6 districts of the country – as stipulated in the Act? Moreover, there were all sorts of potential legal and administrative problems in the elections of the Cultivation Committees. And so on.

     The Commissioner of Agrarian Services happened to be abroad for 3 weeks. Thus, not only was I the Acting Head of a Class I, Grade 1 Department at the age of 28, but I also needed policy-level help, because this was hitherto unchartered territory in the country. So I asked for an appointment with the Minister of Agriculture, Phillip Gunawardena, the author of the Act, whom I had never met or seen before. The Minister was charming, affable and even fatherly, over a cup of tea and cakes in Parliament. Getting down to business, I brought to his notice the number of legal difficulties and some of the administrative problems that needed his guidance.

     I was so intent on my presentation of the potential legal problems of the Cultivation Committees, I failed to notice that he had tossed his spectacles on the table, which was a sign (I was told later) he was losing his patience – and his temper. I was only half way through my list when he suddenly banged his fist on the table with a loud noise, stopping me abruptly. ‘Young man’ he exclaimed, ‘Have you come across these difficulties in the field – or are they in your head?’ When I pointed weakly to my head, ‘Go and work’, he thundered! ‘And when you come across these problems, then you come to me!’ In complete disarray, I scooped up my files and scooted from Parliament, leaving a trail of paper in my wake! This was the first and last time that I saw Mr Phillip Gunawardena.

     Within a few months, he was isolated and pushed out of the Cabinet, to be succeeded as Minister of Agriculture by CP de Silva. This resulted in 2 difficulties that I had to face. Within a few months, every one of the legal and administrative problems that I had raised with the Minister had actually come to pass. But secondly, when I needed ministerial help, Phillip Gunawardena was no longer there. Instead, there was a new Minister, CP de Silva, his political foe, who was actually opposed to the Act, and who decided to let it fester in its own legal difficulties so as to discredit it countrywide. In fact, I had to battle with the new Minister to amend the Act in order to give effect to the intentions of Parliament, or to repeal it. I gathered that he was not prepared to go to Parliament to publicly repeal it, since it was publicly popular. As late as 1960, I was struggling to get the same loopholes plugged that I had pointed out to the former Minister (Philip G) in 1958.

     Although upset by my encounter with Phillip Gunawardena, I came later to recognize that I had been looking at it only from my own administrative and legal point of view, not appreciating his political difficulties in going back to Parliament for amendments before implementation had even begun! Although I never met Mr Gunawardena thereafter, he must have appreciated my work, for he later paid me a handsome compliment in Parliament, as recorded in Hansard.

     New Ideas: The Role of the Cultivation Committees – Starting from the premise that the state machinery, especially at lower levels, was subject to the influence of the landlords, the Paddy Lands Act created a new Agrarian Services Department at national level, devoted to its implementation. Moreover, in order to bypass the lower level of administration at field level (which was thought to be under landlord influence), it created Cultivation Committees with assured majorities for the actual cultivators. This attempt to bias the administration in favour of the weaker sections of the agrarian society represented a change from the view prevailing from colonial times, namely, that the administration would be neutral in its dealings with all sections of the public. It is relevant to note here that most of the agrarian reform programs in Latin America started from the same premise. Similarly, they opted for separate, dedicated agencies for the implementation of their land reforms, outside their existing ministries. The experiences of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan were quite different because their land reforms were carried out under martial law, or with the active backing of the military.

     The Act was also innovatory in that it represented the first time in any country in South and SE Asia that legal powers in the implementation of tenurial reforms and the management of irrigation and cultivation at field levels were given to an elected body. The idea that an elected body of semi-educated farmers could take over functions from the government bureaucracy was clearly revolutionary at that time: e.g., since the rent payable on a particular field was fixed as one-fourth share of the harvest, how could a distant court know how much the gross harvest of a particular field was? The Act recognized that such factual questions at field level could only be answered at field level. The failure to recognize this and to provide for beneficiary participation in implementing such reforms has been one of the greatest weaknesses of similar programs in other countries of the region at that time.

     The first role of the Cultivation Committees was to help in the implementation of the tenancy provisions of the Act (Sections 8-19). The Committees were also authorized to act as intermediaries between landlord and tenant in the collection of rents etc, thus reducing the personal hold of landlords over their tenants. The Cultivation Committees were thus expected to play an important socio-psychological role in bolstering the confidence of the tenant-cultivators to actively claim their rights under the law.

     Secondly, the Cultivation Committees were given important development functions, with powers for the advancement of paddy cultivation in their areas. They were given access to technical advice in the form of Agricultural Extension Officers and Village Cultivation Officers, who were made ex-officio members of the Committees; but with a right only to speak but not to vote at their meetings. It was hoped that with such technical advice emanating from within, and adopted by the Committees, would enable both paddy production and water-management to be greatly improved by the farmers, acting on their own volition..

     A third major innovatory function of the Cultivation Committees was in respect of (irrigation) water management, with the Committees taking over the functions of the Irrigation Headmen (Vel Vidanes) at field level. These functions, among others, included enforcement of rules relating to cultivation dates, clearing of channels, fencing etc, as well as improving water management. This was in a context where bureaucratic and technical means of water management at field level had already failed. The Paddy Lands Act of 1958 thus predated international recognition of the need for farmer participation in water-management by at least 20 years! In practice, however, the Cultivation Committees under the Act of 1958 never made any progress in this field because they were legally invalidated soon after their formation.

     A fourth innovation was in the field of agricultural extension. It was evident then, and more evident now, that agricultural extension systems based on the western models of one extension worker dealing face-to-face with each individual farmer were completely unrealistic in most developing countries with a multitude of small farmers. For example, in Nepal, an extension agent would have to walk one whole day to even reach 50 farmers in remote villages! No developing country in the world could afford such a system in the context of multiple small farmers, which would require a quadrupling or more of extension workers. Ironically, this has been the recommendation of FAO and the World Bank for decades since the Paddy Lands Act of 1958! It is therefore obvious that a 2-stage system or a group system of extension had to be devised, either with the extension agent working through farmer leaders, or through a system of group-extension, as envisaged by the PLA. Thus, the Act’s introduction of such a group extension system with farmer education and participation in the planning and implementation of such self-decided programs of agricultural development was at least 40 years ahead of its time.

     Lastly, the tenurial provisions of the Paddy Lands Act needed to be supported by a broader package of institutional support for smallholder agriculture, in order for the Act itself to be effective. Such a package was provided by the establishment of the multipurpose cooperatives, agricultural credit for smallholders, a fertilizer subsidy, a guaranteed price for paddy, a pilot crop insurance scheme. It is important to recognize that the Green Revolution could not have taken off in Sri Lanka around 1967 if the institutional support structure for small-scale paddy farming had not been laid in the late 1950s, alongside and with the Paddy Lands Act.

     While the Act provided for an active role by farmers’ organizations (Cultivation Committees), it is clear that the latter were not neutral farmer organizations. It was known, eg, that the village cooperatives in most countries of South Asia were under the control of the big landlords. The Paddy Lands Act, therefore, went to great lengths to neutralize the overweening power of the landlords by weighting these Committees heavily in favour of the actual cultivators. The landlords, however, retaliated by getting the Cultivation Committees declared legally invalid. This had the effect of cutting off the implementation structure at the knees, with no feet on the ground, making field level implementation impossible.

     Thus one of the main laudatory features of the Act, namely, its provision for beneficiary participation, proved also to be its Achilles heel, leading ultimately to its collapse. Although such local farmers’ associations weighted in favour of the actual tillers succeeded in Japan, Taiwan, S Korea, they were supported by martial law, or by military force. In contrast, our Cultivation Committees were subject to a judicial system under the rule of law in a democracy. In fact, it even allowed a President of a Village Tribunal to famously declare from the bench: “Pillippua Parippua-ge kumburu panatha appete epa” (We don’t want lousy Phillip’s PLA!)

     The Department of Agrarian Services organized rounds of field-level meetings, trying to encourage the Cultivation Committees to hold fast, promising that legal amendments would soon be forthcoming to remedy their legal incapacity. But in fact, these amendments came too late. They were passed only after the landlords had already evicted their tenants, and only after the Cultivation Committees had been seen to have failed in their cultivation and irrigation duties, thus losing the confidence of the farmers themselves.

     It is also necessary to consider the socio-political climate in the villages at that time. There was euphoria among the tenant-cultivators and agricultural workers when the Act was passed, heightened by their participation in the formation of the Cultivation Committees, which they felt would support them against arbitrary eviction and higher rents.

     This enthusiasm was reflected in other aspects of cultivation too. Fertilizer consumption doubled in the first year of the formation of the Cultivation Committees, but collapsed in the year following their legal invalidation. This collapse caused great demoralization among the cultivators, since they had gained great socio-psychological support from the Committees in standing up for their rights. With their collapse, many tenants surrendered their rights, accepting their plight as ‘hidden tenants’ with no rights under the law. There was chaos in the paddy fields too, since there was no agent/agency left to ensure that the fields were fenced or the water issued. Hence, by the time the Cultivation Committees were re-legalized by the Paddy Lands (Amendment) Acts of 1961 and 1964, the latter served only to close the stable door after the horse had bolted. The Committees never regained the vigour and vibrancy that accompanied the first flush of their formation under the Act of 1958.

     Legal and Administrative Challenges: The Collapse of the Cultivation Committees – It is left only to record the legal arguments that led to the collapse of the Cultivation Committees of 1958 – which provides a lesson in itself of how legal finagling can upset progressive legislation. A Cultivation Committee was to consist of 12 members (Section 29). ‘Of the prescribed number of elected members of the Committee: (a) not less than three-fourths shall be elected by the qualified cultivators…; and (b) not more than one-fourth shall be elected by the qualified owners…’ Clearly the intention was to give greater weight in the Committees to the actual cultivators as opposed to the landlords.

     In administrative terms, it was clear that there had to be 2 separate elections: one for the owners to elect their members, and one for the actual cultivators to elect theirs. This required that separate electoral lists be prepared for the owners and separate ones for the cultivators. Given the predictable opposition from the landlords, every name on every electoral list was liable to be challenged, while the elections themselves could be disputed in law. I had pointed this out to Phillip Gunawardena in my first and only encounter with him.

     But there were even more serious problems. Since the law and relevant regulations stipulated that all Cultivation Committees shall have 12 members, the refusal by landlords to elect their representatives would render most of the Committees invalid. This again was a potential problem that I had brought to the notice of the Minister in my initial and only meeting with him – for which I was chased out by him! Faced with this situation on the ground one year later, we took the position (with the agreement of the Attorney-General) that if the landlords failed to elect their 3 representatives, the cultivators could elect the full 12 members of the Committee, since the cultivators were entitled to elect a number ‘not less than three-fourths’ of the Committee. The landlords then consulted HV Pereira, the highest legal luminary in the country. His brilliant mathematical argument in the appellate court was that, since the landlords were to elect ‘a number… not more than one-fourth’, and the qualified owners had elected nought representatives, and since nought is not a number, the Cultivation Committees were not legally constituted! On this abtruse mathematical argument, the Court decided the Cultivation Committees were not legally constituted!

     All past and future actions of such Committees were also declared null and void! This ruling encouraged the landlords to boycott the Cultivation Committee elections all over the country, thus rendering them legally invalid and their actions legally void. Thus the implementation machinery of the Act at field level was completely demolished on the basis of this legal argument! Since these Committees had by law taken over important irrigation and cultivation functions (the vel vidanes having been abolished) their invalidation led to a breakdown in the common arrangements for cultivation and irrigation, thus causing complete chaos in the field. And the Minister in charge of its implementation (CP de Silva) was not prepared to pass the needed amendments to plug the legal loopholes.

     This placed me, as the implementer, in a professionally unenviable position. On the one hand, my duty was to implement the Act; but on the other, my own Minister who was also supposed to be implementing the Act, seemed intent on making its implementation impossible. Nor was he willing to repeal the Act, since it still had popular appeal. Two Commissioners of the Agrarian Services had been transferred out of the Department because they had agreed to sign the needed amendments to plug the loopholes in the Act. After more than 2 years of this unequal and unsuccessful struggle, I capitulated and sought a transfer out of the Ministry.

(The writer, a former Ceylon Civil Service member, later worked for a long period at the UN’s FAO)

– island.lk/implementing-the-paddy-lands-act-of-1958-the-cultivation-committees/

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B3. The Modern industrialization of the Congo – SBD de Silva

Excerpt from Chapter 4, SBD de Silva’s classic, The Political Economy of Underdevelopment,1982

In the Congo the settlers were relatively few, and the influence of Belgian corporate capital was overwhelming. After an abortive scheme to settle Belgian farmers in Katanga in 1911-12, peasant cultivation was encouraged. All the same, Belgian companies obtained large land concessions for mining and plantation agriculture. By the end of the 1950s, there were about 100,000 Europeans – less than 1% of the population.61

     The expatriate nature of the Europeans in the Congo had two marked exceptions in the landowners of Kivu and the Katanga settlers. The latter were mainly Flemish, and had a high degree of social and cultural homogeneity – tending even to become parochial. Their group consciousness, sense of independence, and attachment to the province was also due to the Comite Special du Katanga, under whose auspices the first migrants arrived and which exercised administrative control until 1910. The Katanga settlers nurtured separatist sentiments. They tried to achieve relative autonomy for their province, and resented Belgian control. As settlers they also had an antipathy towards the Congolese, whom they wanted to set apart in a system of reserves on the lines of South Africa.

     The Congo achieved an impressive level of economic advance. Manufacturing output in the 1950s was about 10% of the total GDP, as in Rhodesia and Kenya; the ratio for 9 other African countries included by Ligthart and Abbai in their comparative study was ‘well below 5%’.64 Manufacturing production was mainly of intermediate goods and industrial materials; chemicals constituted 46%. There was also an all-round development of the economy, comprising mining, manufacturing industry and agriculture. While palm oil was produced on plantations, cotton as well as foodstuffs for the mining and industrial labour force were grown by peasants. Imports were mostly capital goods, which in 1954-7 represented over a third of the total value of imports,65 and light consumer goods only 14%.

     This economic advance was based on extraordinary mineral wealth. In 1959, the Congo produced 9% of the world’s copper, 49% of cobalt, 69% of industrial diamonds, and nearly 7% of tin.66 It was the 6th largest producer of zinc, one of the largest producers of uranium and the only producer of radium.67 Its industrial-diamond mines are the world’s largest. The copper ores of Upper Katanga are the richest in the world.68 Katanga alone produces 7% of the world’s copper and two thirds of the Congo’s cobalt.69 Mineral production doubled 1930-50, and increased tenfold 1950-59.

     The specific character of the mining operations in the Congo gave the economy a dynamism of its own. First, these operations, especially the reduction of copper ore before smelting, are far more complex than those for many other metals, including iron and steel, and they released a long line of products which were the basis of separate industries – eg, explosives, sulphuric acid, ferrous and ferric sulphates, soda and pyrestrol, industrial glycerine, insecticides, faints and varnishes, glass, pharmaceuticals, perfumery.70 The impurities from copper refining include valuable metals – cobalt, zinc, lead, cadmium and germanium; the treatment of cobalt leaves behind a slag used in the manufacture of metallurgical cement; sulphurous gases from the electrolyzing of zinc are convertible into sulphuric acid. Second, the mineral enterprise sustained a high degree of technological progress. In the mines of the Union Miniere du Haut-Katanga, labour productivity increased phenomenally; eg, 1920-25, there was a fourfold expansion in output with only a 16% increase in the workforce.71 For the Katanga as a whole between 1950-59 copper output rose by about 60% with practically no change in the workforce.72 Third, the continuing need for capital to finance these improvements encouraged savings and reinvestment. For several years running, the mining companies ploughed back up to 40 or 50% of annual profits.73 Gross capital formation for the economy as a whole exceeded 25% of national expenditure, compared with less than 15% in other African countries (except Rhodesia).74 Lastly, the mining enterprise promoted an advanced infrastructure, including engineering facilities and hydroelectric projects, with obvious spillover effects. Abundant and inexpensive electric power after WW2, and especially from the mid-1960s when the Inga dam was completed, made the local processing of copper ore very profitable. Electricity consumption, in 194kw hours per head, was nearly twice that of Algeria and Morocco, 3 times that of Ghana and almost 4 times Kenya’s.75

     The mineral-based industries thus constituted the main component of manufacturing activity in the Congo. The close nexus between mining and industrial development was reflected in the predominance of the metal industries and in particular chemicals. While mining was the core around which manufacturing activity developed, agriculture provided a secondary basis of such activity. The agro-based industries comprised the processing of oleaginous substances (palm kernels, peanuts, cotton seed and castor seed); the manufacture of soap and margarine, textiles, and cigarettes; and sugar refining. Soaps and detergents were manufactured by about 60 enterprises, mostly small-scale. The textile industry consisted of cotton gins, clothing factories, fibre-cleaning establishments and hosiery, rope, sacking and bag factories. A third component of manufacturing production, besides the mineral-based industries and the agro-based industries, was the building materials industry. This included 3 cement factories, a fibre-cement works, and numerous enterprises producing concrete or cement fittings such as pipes, cranks and traps, as well as ceramics.

     The Congo underwent heavy urbanization. Its devastation and depopulation during King Leopold’s rule led to a serious labour scarcity when large-scale mining operations began in the early 1920s, followed a few years later by the opening of plantations. After an initial recourse to forced labour, recruitment and employment patterns were adopted so as to ensure a stable workforce. In the absence of sufficient Europeans, the Congolese were trained and employed as technicians. They were still subjected to penal sanctions for absenteeism or breaches of the labour contract, yet in Katanga wage inducements and welfare benefits were introduced – subsidized housing, education and medical care. There was a permanent relocation of Africans outside the tribal areas; they were recruited on a family basis and housed in the mining towns.76 Though large numbers of urban Africans lived in small regional centres having their links with the countryside,77 urbanization and the growth of wage labour in the Congo had no parallel in Africa outside the settler colonies. After World War II, urbanization was especially rapid, increasing from nearly 15% in 1946 to 21% in 1954. In 1954 urban Africans constituted nearly one third of the adult males, and by 1949 two fifths. Wage employment increased along with urbanization and the growth of plantations and other forms of commercial farming. In 1934 some 253,000 Africans were in wage employment, distributed almost equally between industry and agriculture.78

     Urbanization and wage labour fostered domestic trade and markets. Regional specialization in both food and manufactured goods developed far more than in other colonial export economies. Barring a small subsistence sector, the economy became a fairly composite entity whose different segments interacted rather than constituted an assemblage of disarticulate parts converging on a metropolitan economy abroad. While mineral production was export oriented, the major industrial regions catered for a domestic demand, in exchange for food and raw materials from the other provinces. Katanga supplied manufactured goods such as cigarettes, confectionery, biscuits, beer, textiles, metal and wood products. Its purchases included maize, groundnuts and tobacco from Kasai; manioc and rice from Kasai and Kivu; palm oil from Kasai, Oriental and Leopoldville; sugar from Kivu; wood from Kasai and Kivu; coffee and cotton from the northern provinces.79

     The growth of the domestic market was due both to the extensive involvement of Africans in the wage economy and to a relatively high level of consumption per head. From 1921 African labor in most European enterprises were given food rations and after 1932 a cash equivalent was paid. Labor productivity and wages in the large mining or industrial enterprises were much higher than in most African countries. After WW2 real wages in mining rose steadily – in 1957 by 8%, in 1958 by 3%, and again in the first half of 1959 by 3%.80 The employment of Congolese technicians also led to the diffusion of purchasing power. Furthermore, consumption levels were supported by ‘welfarism’ as a deliberate strategy. Thus, despite enormous disparities between the average earnings of the Europeans and of the Congolese, the share of national income accruing to the latter tended to increase. Between 1950-52, when national income expanded by 28% in real terms, the share of the Congolese rose from 52% to nearly 56%.81

     It will be evident that the Congo’s economic expansion reflects to some extent the unusual growth potential inherent in the exploitation of mineral resources of the kind mentioned – copper, cobalt, industrial diamonds, uranium and zinc. These products not merely had a strong world demand but also promoted an advanced infrastructure. The fact that the level of economic development in the Congo was manifestly higher than in Zambia (in both of which copper mining was predominant) is, however, not easy to explicate in terms of our settler/nonsettler model, since the Congo as a whole was not a settler colony. Yet some reasons for this discrepancy which leave the model substantially intact may be proffered.

     Much of the Congo’s industrial activity, based on mining production, was concentrated in Katanga. Katanga was the ‘hinge on which the Congo’s economy revolved’; it contributed about a third of the value of domestic output, more than two fifths of foreign trade, and a similar share of public revenue.82 In 1957 mining and metal extraction and related manufactures accounted for 51% of the total value of secondary production; and a significant component of this was chemicals – a by-product of the mining enterprise. Manufacturing output that was independent of mining was 21% of the value of industrial output.83 While the Congo occupied an intermediate position in the settler/nonsettler model – not wholly a settler colony but closer to one than Zambia – Katanga province, where most of the mineral wealth and industrial development was concentrated, was almost a separate unit, despite a certain measure of commercial integration of the Congo which I earlier noted. It was also in Katanga that settler influence was greatest. The immense wealth and high technological activity attracted the Europeans and kept them there. Whereas Belgian corporate capital was powerfully entrenched, the local staff of the companies had interests and an outlook similar to those of the settlers. The political manifestation of this settler orientation was found in Tshombe’s rebellion. That is to say, in Katanga settler influence was relatively strong and urban-cum-industrial investment as well as political power was concentrated. If Katanga had not been a constituent unit, the Congo would be no different from Zambia.

     I have so far explained the economic developments of the Congo in terms of 4 main factors. First, the exceptionally rich natural resource base; second, the strong settler influence in Katanga; third, the spread of purchasing power due to extensive urbanization and wage employment among the Congolese and to their relatively high wages; and, fourth, the expansion of internal trade and markets. There were 3 other factors which also contributed to the high level of development. One of these was the effects of an early start in mining. The exceptional development impact of the production of heavy minerals in the Congo compared with Zambia was thus historically determined. Copper mining was begun in the Congo in 1910 – 2 decades earlier than in Zambia – and the industrializing side-effects of mining were felt substantially in the Congo, from where they later spilled over into Zambia.84 Furthermore, in the absence of preferential treatment for Belgian goods in the colonial markets, Belgian manufacturers set up branches in the Congo of industries such as textiles, sugar, beer, soap, cement. Finally, official encouragement was given to peasant agriculture – especially the production of foodstuffs, including rice, manioc and coffee.85 This policy was due to both economic and political considerations: the high cost of food imports and its effect on wages, and a desire to reduce dependence on imports from South Africa and Rhodesia. Thus the production of food and other consumer articles for the domestic market became complementary to the export sector, whereas in the classical plantation or mining economies they were in conflict. In addition to the economic bases, the social composition of the settlers in Katanga strengthened the local identity of the settlers as opposed to the purely expatriate interests.

     Though somewhat remarkable for its scale and tempo, the process of economic development in the Congo had nevertheless fundamental limits. The dominance of the expatriate groups, subordinated economically and politically to Belgium, thwarted a fuller realization of the growth potential of the Congo. The plantation and mining concessions required each company ‘to purchase more than half of its materials from Belgium and to employ Belgians to the extent of 60% of its European personnel’.86 The Charte Colonial of 1908 brought the Congo under the direct control of the Belgian government. Legislation was mostly in the form of royal decrees. Major decisions – eg, on land or mining concessions and finance, and the Congolese budget – required the assent of the Belgian Parliament. In Brussels a Conseil Colonial safeguarded metropolitan interests. The settlers for all their intolerance and repression of the Congolese were not a powerful group – the political rights they demanded were not granted by Belgium.87 The settlers’ economic interests complemented those of the large metropolitan corporations, and both were politically represented in the Conkat (Confederation d’Associations Tribalese du Katanga), formed in 1958.

     The domination by Belgian corporate capital resulted per se from the large size of the investments in mining and plantations. The size of these investments was economically justified only in mining. Land was virtually given away so long as a percentage of the earnings was turned in to the government’s coffers. But most of the grantees, while profiting from the general increase in land values, neither provided adequate social services as stipulated in the grants nor developed their properties.88 A ‘multiplicity of vested interests’89 ‘battened on their state guarantees’, pre-empting others from mineral prospecting and development. Non-Belgian capital was excluded, though the concessions were too large to be worked effectively by Belgian investors.90

     Year after year the Colonial Commission of the [Belgian] Senate had ascribed the lack of greater mining development in the Congo to the relative inactivity of the large concessionaire whose rights block the way to those who would be willing to engage in prospecting or development. The ownership of the corporations and therefore almost all financial power in the Congo was held by a few entrepreneurial groups in Belgium. The colonial officials looked after the interests of the corporations. Some of them after a career in government found employment in the corporations or held part-time executive positions in them; yet others, with no obvious links with the corporations, were remunerated ‘for services rendered’. Despite a high level of reinvestment in the mining industry, there was an enormous outflow of profits and of payments for banking, transportation and insurance services, which turned the Congo’s favourable trade balances into recurrent payments deficits.91

     The ‘solid Belgian presence’ in the Congo blocked any advancement of indigenous interests. Congolese were employed in the mining and manufacturing enterprises as technicians, foremen and skilled workers and in the lower ranks of the administration. At the time of Independence (1960), out of 11,428 officers in the administrative service 86% were Europeans;92 likewise the doctors in the country, the pharmacists, dentists, biologists, nurses, midwives and public health officers. As a matter of policy, primary education was liberally given but secondary education withheld. Congolese were not allowed to own land except for a ‘handful of rural plots’ in Katanga ceded by the end of WW2. They were denied the right of association, discouraged from travelling from one province to another or from going abroad,93 and in the towns they were residentially segregated. ‘The most ferocious Anglo-Saxon colour-bar had never produced so many measures of so rigid a segregation as our Belgian tutelage’, wrote A. Rubbens.94

     A Congolese bourgeoisie never existed. Internal trade, which in most colonies, including West Africa, was a stamping ground for small-scale indigenous enterprise, was dominated by Portuguese and Greeks. The closed trading networks of these alien minorities were a barrier to all but a handful of Congolese petty traders in Leopoldville. More generally, commercial enterprise by the Congolese was inhibited by the legalized restrictions on land ownership and credit. As an economically retarded mass, they were stratified on the basis of prestige or social status rather than of income. A small distinguished group were the evolues’. Taught to emulate the Belgians in their life-style, they were a buffer between the colonial power and the masses but without the full status of Europeans. It was this lack of any group with a stake in colonial rule which suddenly mobilized large sections of Congolese and brought them to the verge of overthrowing Belgian rule. The prospect of abolishing social disabilities and economic discrimination mobilized an embryonic Congolese ‘politico-administrative’ elite against colonial rule. Parliamentarians, soldiers, teachers, clerks and medical assistants all looked for better opportunities from decolonization.95 After Independence the first act of the groups which inherited power was to help themselves to privileges and higher incomes. (The parliamentarians voted a 5fold increase in their salaries, from 100,000 to 500,000 francs a year.)

Footnotes:

61 ‘Belgian Congo’, vol. 1, published by the Ruanda-Urundi Information and Public Relations Office (Brussels, 1959), p. 392.

64 Loc. cit., p. 13.

65 Ibid., p. 73.

66 Catherine Hoskyns, ‘The Congo Since Independence’ (Oxford, 1965), p. 14.

67 ‘Belgian Congo’, vol. 1, op. cit., p. 310. The raw material for the first atomic bombs was supplied by the uranium mines of the Congo (Garry Fullerton, ‘UNESCO in the Congo’ (UNESCO, Geneva, 1964), p.27).

68 ‘Belgian Congo’, vol. 1, op. cit., p. 308; also ‘A Manual of the Congo’ (compiled by the Geographical Section of the Naval Intelligence Division, Naval Staff, Admiralty, I. D. 1213 (HMSO, London, 1920), pp. 204-5.

69 Hoskyns, op. cit., p. 14.

70 ‘Belgian Congo’, vol. 2, published by the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi Information and Public Relations Office (Brussels, 1960). Table on p. 109. Also ibid., vol. 1 (Brussels, 1959), p. 331.

71 Buell, op. cit., p. 509.

72 UN, ‘Economic Bulletin for Africa’, vol. 2, no. 2 (June 1962), p. 74.

73 F. Bezy, Development of the Congo, in Robinson (ed.), op. cit., p. 73.

74 Ibid., p. 88.

75 Ligthart and Abbai, loc. cit., p. 21.

76 In 1950 about 40% of the mine workers had done ten years’ continuous service (Hailey, op. cit., p. 1392).

77 Young, op. cit., p. 21.

78 Frankel, op. cit., p. 292.

79 ‘Economic Bulletin for Africa’, V2, N2 (June 1962), p. 69. Also ‘Belgian Congo’, vol. 1, op. cit., pp. 264-5.

80 UN, ‘Economic Bulletin for Africa’, vol. 1, no. l (January 1961), p. 93.

81 Hailey, op. cit., p. 1299.

82 Bezy, loc. cit., p. 75. Building and building materials constituted 16% of the total value of industrial output, and the processing of agricultural produce (mainly palm kernels) 12% (ibid).

83 Hoskyns, op. cit., p. 15. Based on UN, ‘Economic Bulletin for Africa’, June 1961, pp. 79-81.

84 I owe to Dr Carlos Fortin much of the explanation given in this and the preceding paragraph of the different spread effects of copper mining in the Congo and in Zambia.

85 ‘Belgian Congo’, vol. 1, published by the Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi Information and Public Relations Office (Brussels, 1959), pp. 264-5; W. O. Jones, ‘Manioc in Africa’ (Stanford, 1959), p. 139.

86 Buell, op. cit., p. 508.

87 Young, op. cit., p. 45.

88 Ibid., pp. 516-17.

89 Frankel, op. cit., p. 301.

90 Ibid., p. 295.

91 Hoskyns, op. cit., p. 19; also Merriam, op. cit., P. 276.

92 Ibid., p. 12.

93 Thomas Kanza, the first Congolese to register at a university (in 1952), needed high-level intervention from colonial personages before he could proceed to Belgium for his studies (Young, op. cit., p. 94).

94 Le colour bar au Congo Beige, ‘Zaire’, vol. 7, no. 5 (May 1959), p. 503.

95 Georges N. Nzongola, The Bourgeoisie and Revolution in the Congo, ‘Journal of Modern African Studies’, vol. 8, no. 4 (1970).

__________________________________________________________

C. News Index______________________________________________

ee News Index provides headlines and links to gain a sense of the weekly focus of published English ‘business news’ mainly to expose the backwardness of a multinationally controlled ‘local media’:

C1. Sovereignty

(ee is pro-politics, pro-politician, pro-nation-state, anti-corporatist, anti-expert, anti-NGO)

ee Sovereignty news emphasizes sovereignty as economic sovereignty – a strong nation is built on modern industrialization fueled by a producer culture.

• Deeper scrutiny of ‘intelligence related matters’ needed

‘During Mahinda Rajapaksa’s second presidential term, the US Embassy made an abortive bid to recruit Maj. Gen. Prasad Samarasinghe. The offer was made at a party hosted by then US Defence attaché Lt. Col. Lawrence Smith on January 20, 2011, in honor of a senior officer from the US Pacific Command.’

– island.lk/a-deeper-scrutiny-of-intelligence-related-matters-needed/

 • It’s time for the Geneva Circus replete with molehills and mountains

 – island.lk/its-time-for-the-geneva-circus-replete-with-molehills-and-mountains/

• Justice for Sri Lanka @ UNHRC 46

‘We urge the UN and its member states to take affirmative action against the LTTE fronts who are involved in a plethora of illegal international crimes.’

– gammiris.lk/justice-for-sri-lanka-unhrc-46/

• Let’s go for 13 Plus

‘The LLRC recommended devolution but interjected the important caveat, ‘agreeable to all communities,’ a caveat those who gaily quote this element of the LLRC report happily leave out’

– dailymirror.lk/opinion/Lets-go-for-13-Plus/172-204159

• Time for the Human Rights Watch Whine (laugh, ladies and gentlemen!)

– gammiris.lk/time-for-the-human-rights-watch-whine-laugh-ladies-and-gentlemen/

• Two scripts titled ‘Geneva’

– gammiris.lk/two-scripts-titled-geneva/

• Regional Representative Conference of Federation of National Organizations on Jan 21

– island.lk/regional-representative-conference-of-federation-of-national-organizations-on-jan-21/

• Some Questions regarding Sinhala & Tamil language

‘Wasn’t the demand to reverse the discrimination to Sinhalese manipulated into showcasing a majority-minority rift, again part of colonial divide and rule policy?’

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/22/some-questions-regarding-sinhala-tamil-language/

• How representative of the Tamils is the ITAK/TNA?

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/22/how-representative-of-the-tamils-is-the-itak-tna/

• Question of Indian Tamils & Ceylon Tamils & Disenfranchisement

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/20/question-of-indian-tamils-ceylon-tamils-disenfranchisement/

• SLN craft by Indian trawler miles inside Lankan waters with several other poaching vessels

– island.lk/sln-craft-damaged-in-collision-with-indian-trawler-that-had-intruded-miles-into-lankan-waters-with-several-dozen-other-poaching-vessels/

• Sri Lanka gets demarche, India says shocked over fishermen deaths

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-gets-demarche-india-says-shocked-over-fishermen-deaths-78091/

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/India-conveys-strong-protest-to-Sri-Lanka-over-death-of-Indian-fishermen/108-204283

• MCC inconsistent with Constitution

– island.lk/mcc-inconsistent-with-constitution/

• Attorney General’s Department owes explanation to the GoSL, Public & US Government

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/19/the-attorney-generals-department-owes-an-explanation-to-the-gosl-the-public-the-us-government/

• Attorney General’s Office and camouflage: Are opinions colour-coded?

– ft.lk/columns/Attorney-General-s-Office-and-camouflage-Are-opinions-colour-coded/4-711954

• A new Presidential Commission of Inquiry to study human rights allegations

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/news/a-new-commission-of-inquiry-to-study-human-rights-allegations-429116.html

– island.lk/president-appoints-coi-to-investigate-entire-gamut-of-hr-probes-and-findings/

• UNHRC sessions: Lanka turns down invitation to co-sponsor new resolution

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/news/unhrc-sessions-lanka-turns-down-invitation-to-co-sponsor-new-resolution-429114.html

• Western Hostility At March UNHRC Session Doesn’t Worry Colombo

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/18/western-hostility-at-march-unhrc-session-doesnt-worry-colombo/

• Wigneswaran alleges Govt. trying to deceive UNHRC

– island.lk/wigneswaran-alleges-govt-trying-to-deceive-unhrc/

• Global Tamil Forum backs action against Lanka on the human rights front

– island.lk/gtf-backs-action-against-lanka-on-the-human-rights-front/

• TNA has asked for almost a separate state

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/20/tna-has-asked-for-almost-a-separate-state-2/

• India ‘intervened’ on Jaffna University memorial issue

– thehindu.com/news/international/india-intervened-on-jaffna-varsity-memorial-issue/article33594886.ece

• Tamil Nadu politics behind India’s new hardline on Lanka

‘The message in India’s intervention points to its readiness to use the Tamil issue as a diplomatic leverage as in the past to dissuade Sri Lanka not to get too close to China.’

– dailymirror.lk/opinion/Tamil-Nadu-politics-behind-Indias-new-hardline-on-Lanka/172-204229

• The story behind the 60 hours that shook Jaffna

‘High Commissioner Gopal Baglay rushed to his residence at Wijerama Mawatha. He voiced serious concerns over the demolition of “Mullaivaikal memorial” located within the precincts of the Jaffna University. He is learnt to have told Premier Rajapaksa that coming as it does just after the visit of Foreign Minister, Dr Subramaniam Jaisahankar, it could lead to protests erupting in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu.’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/columns/the-story-behind-the-60-hours-that-shook-jaffna-429001.html

• Dayan as Hanuman’s Fireman

– gammiris.lk/dayan-as-hanumans-fireman/

• G-word to Geneva, ethnic cleansing enablers and ECT options – Jayatilleka

– ft.lk/columns/G-word-to-Geneva-ethnic-cleansing-enablers-and-ECT-options/4-711878

• Fonseka criticizes handover of ECT to foreign entity

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/20/fonseka-criticizes-handover-of-ect-to-foreign-entity/

• “Sinhala Eelam” – Harim Peries

‘The writer served as Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 2016-17’

– island.lk/from-jaffna-library-to-university-politics-of-identity/

• The liberal interventionist quagmire

– gammiris.lk/the-liberal-interventionist-quagmire/

• Convince India that PCs are a useless burden

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/20/convince-india-that-pcs-are-a-useless-burden/

• Delayed PC polls: Election monitors warn Govt. of international implications

– island.lk/delayed-pc-polls-election-monitors-warn-govt-of-international-implications/

• President’s decision on Colombo Port in national interest: National Peace Council

– island.lk/presidents-decision-on-colombo-port-in-national-interest/

• Ex-BoI Chief backs Prez on ECT deal

 ‘”The government shouldn’t succumb to trade union pressure under any circumstances,”’

– island.lk/ex-boi-chief-backs-prez-on-ect-deal/

• Rs 1.2 billion- Indian funded- Indian Cultural Centre in Jaffna

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/columns/us-born-lankans-law-enforcement-agency-in-the-thick-of-capitol-riot-429038.html

• TNA, allies call for International Independent Investigatory Mechanism like in Syria

– island.lk/tna-allies-call-for-outfit-like-iiim-in-syria-to-probe-sl/

• Have Tamils benefitted from UNHRC resolutions?

‘However, all this hyper Tamil nationalistic, pro-LTTE and anti- Sri Lankan activism can go on only as long as the government permits it or the next claymore mine goes off. Once one of the two happens, it would be the Tamils who would be left to pick up pieces for yet again.’

– dailymirror.lk/opinion/Have-Tamils-benefitted-from-UNHRC-resolutions/172-204040

• Tamil diaspora groups in England pressing for new resolution against SL

– island.lk/tamil-diaspora-groups-in-britain-pressing-for-new-resolution-against-sl/

• England PM’s Pongal greetings reflect Tamil diaspora’s massive influence over British govt.

– island.lk/uk-pms-pongal-greetings-reflect-tamil-diasporas-massive-influence-over-british-govt/

• LTTE continues to be banned organization in USA

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/16/us-state-dept-reviews-foreign-terrorist-organizations-ltte-continues-to-be-banned-organisation/

• Biden elevates Samantha Power to Cabinet rank

‘When she was Permanent Representative to the United Nations and thereafter, it was Samantha Power, who was the prime mover of the resolution on Sri Lanka at the UN Human Rights Council.’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/columns/us-born-lankans-law-enforcement-agency-in-the-thick-of-capitol-riot-429038.html

• Ahead of Biden Administration taking office, Pathfinder and Asia Society co-host Dialogue

‘US delegation will be led by Robert O. Blake Jr., former Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs under the Obama Adminstration and former Ambassador to Sri Lanka, the Maldives and Indonesia. The Sri Lankan delegation will be headed by Bernard Goonetilleke, former Sri Lankan Foreign Secretary and Ambassador to the US…’

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/18/a-day-ahead-of-assuming-of-office-of-the-biden-administration-pathfinder-and-asia-society-to-co-host-a-dialogue/

• Ameera Arooz appointed Executive Director of Pathfinder Foundation

– ft.lk/news/Ameera-Arooz-appointed-Executive-Director-of-Pathfinder-Foundation/56-711816

• The Belt and Road in Sri Lanka: Beyond the Debt Trap Discussion

– thediplomat.com/2020/05/the-belt-and-road-in-sri-lanka-beyond-the-debt-trap-discussion/

• Wartime FM calls for tangible measures to counter Geneva threat

‘How come those who voted for Fonseka still push for an int’l war crime probe?’

– island.lk/wartime-fm-calls-for-tangible-measures-to-counter-geneva-threat/

• Colombo Port East Jetty: Trade Union Proposals to Cabinet Sub-Committee

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/22/colombo-port-east-jetty-trade-union-proposals-to-cabinet-sub-committee/

• Unions bellow, Adani guffaws

‘The present government claims that it cannot do away with the ECT agreement which the previous government entered into with India and Japan. If so, how come the Sri Lanka-Singapore Free Trade Agreement, which was inked during the yahapalana administration, has been put on hold? The current administration cancelled the light rail transit agreement Sri Lanka had signed with JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency), claiming that the project was seriously flawed. But it has chosen not to act similarly anent the ECT deal. Why?’

– island.lk/unions-bellow-adani-guffaws

– ft.lk/front-page/Trade-unions-redouble-efforts-to-keep-India-out-of-ECT/44-712033

• Ven . Bengamuwe Nalaka Thera foresees force against Govt. over ECT

‘The collective of trade unions formed against the move to alienate the Eastern Container Terminal of Colombo Port could become a formidable force…’

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Ven-Bengamuwe-Nalaka-Thera-foresees-force-against-Govt-over-ECT/108-203938

• Harin opens Pandora’s box of Eastern Terminal

‘A joint venture between Adani and Indian [?] company Mediterranean Shipping Co. (MSC) which brought more than 70% of the transshipments to Colombo Port. “MSC also owns a port called Mundra, just north of Mumbai. A problem would arise if Adani Group and MSC shift transshipment to Mundra Port. This will make the Colombo Port idle without business”’

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Harin-opens-Pandoras-box-of-Eastern-Terminal/108-204077

– ft.lk/front-page/Harin-raises-alarm-over-Government-proposed-JV-with-Adani-Group-for-ECT/44-711868

• Surveying of land next to navy base halted due to protests

– sundaytimes.lk/article/1132642/in-pictures-surveying-of-land-next-to-navy-base-halted-due-to-protests

• Indian fisher groups to launch anti-Lankan protest near Katchatheevu

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/news/indian-fisher-groups-to-launch-anti-lankan-protest-near-katchatheevu-429112.html

• India gifts Rs.200mn worth radar spares equipment to Sri Lanka Air Force

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/India-gifts-Rs-200mn-worth-radar-spares-equipment-to-SLAF/108-203928

– island.lk/india-carries-out-checks-of-missiles-provides-indra-mk-ii-radar-spares/

• Kamala and Rohini: The Indo-Lankan combo in the US Vice President’s Office

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/20/kamala-and-rohini-the-indo-lankan-combo-in-the-us-vice-presidents-office/

• China slaps sanctions on 28 Trump administration officials, including Pompeo

– island.lk/china-slaps-sanctions-on-28-trump-administration-officials-including-pompeo/

• Number Of Uyghurs Has Tripled – U.S. Calls It A Genocide – Propaganda Fails To Explain It

‘After being bashed with 24/7 “Trump is bad” news we are now punished with 24/7 of “Biden is great” news. Actions which were an outrage when taken under Trump are now sold as rational endeavors when argued for by Biden acolytes.’

– moonofalabama.org/2021/01/the-number-of-uyghurs-has-trippled-the-us-calls-it-a-genocide-propaganda-fails-to-explain-it.html

• Casualties of Old Cold War Should Inform Opposition to USA’s New Cold War against China

– blackagendareport.com/casualties-old-cold-war-should-inform-opposition-us-new-cold-war-against-china

• English Spies Infiltrate & Undermine Lebanon’s Security Services to foment Instability

– moonofalabama.org/2021/01/new-leaks-show-how-british-spys-infiltrate-and-undermine-lebanons-security-services.html#more

• Rothschild, Anti-Semitism and the Trap of a Jewish State

– jewishvirtuallibrary.org/montagu-memo-on-british-government-s-anti-semitism

• Washington gearing up for geopolitical struggle in the Caucasus – Bhadrakumar

‘What should worry Washington most is that there is sufficient convergence between Russia and China to keep the Caucasus out of the US geopolitical orbit, especially as NATO is consolidating in the Black Sea region.’

– indianpunchline.com/russia-takes-charge-of-nagorno-karabakh/

• Dmitry Medvedev: America 2.0. After the election

‘even a candidate who won the popular vote by more than 100 million ballots may still lose the election in the electoral vote.’

– tass.com/opinions/1245253

• Dystopia – The U.S. seems to have gone completely crazy these day.

‘Two full divisions worth of soldiers are closing off Washington DC to ‘protect’ a mostly virtual inauguration from a non-existing threat.’

– moonofalabama.org/

• Fortress Sweden: Inside the plan to mobilize Swedish society against Russia

– defensenews.com/global/europe/2018/03/14/fortress-sweden-inside-the-plan-to-mobilize-swedish-society-against-russia/

• US makes aggressive opening move on Russian chessboard

‘Biden and the Obama-era officials who comprise his national security team are rooted in their belief that the Russian power calculus is inherently fragile.’

– indianpunchline.com/us-makes-aggressive-opening-move-on-russian-chessboard/

• USAID Has Spent $261 Million to Destabilize Cuba since 1990

– en.granma.cu/mundo/2020-11-12/usaid-and-the-deep-pockets-of-the-counterrevolution

• Biden’s Key Role in the Crime of the Century: The 2003 U.S. Invasion of Iraq

– covertactionmagazine.com/2021/01/19/bidens-key-role-in-the-crime-of-the-century-the-2003-u-s-invasion-of-iraq/

• How Could Vietnam Happen? An Autopsy (1968)

‘Its members were generally committed to one policy line: the close containment and isolation of mainland China, the harassment of “neutralist” nations which sought to avoid alignment with either Washington or Peking, and the maintenance of a network of alliances with anti-Communist client states on China’s periphery’

– theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1968/04/how-could-vietnam-happen-an-autopsy/306462/

• Lenin

‘Ninety-seven years since his death, we remember him here as we remember Fidel, our Lenin, the Lenin of the peoples of the Third World.’

– en.granma.cu/cuba/2021-01-21/lenin

• New CIA Director sees diplomacy and espionage are one… – Bhadrakumar

– indianpunchline.com/biden-is-shifting-leftwards/

• The Two Faces Of The US Empire

– greanvillepost.com/2021/01/16/the-two-faces-of-the-us-empire/

• Corporate America Flexes Its Political Muscle

‘Big business could evidently tolerate working with Mr. Trump despite his chauvinism, his flirtations with white nationalism and his claims of impunity, but the president’s apparent willingness to undermine democracy itself appeared to be a step too far.’

– nytimes.com/2021/01/16/business/dealbook/ceos-politics-trump.html

• Capitol Hill ‘Insurrection’ – Bandarage

– island.lk/capitol-hill-insurrection/

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/19/bipartisan-elite-fuels-us-polarization/

• Crisis of US power: How Europeans see Biden’s US – European Council on Foreign Relations

‘Europeans’ attitudes towards the US have undergone a massive change. Majorities in key member states now think the US political system is broken, and Europe cannot just rely on the US to defend it.’

 – ecfr.eu/publication/the-crisis-of-american-power-how-europeans-see-bidens-america/

• Blinken’s diplomatic cart will have a bumpy ride

‘The confirmation of Antony Blinken as US secretary of state by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee is a foregone conclusion.’

– indianpunchline.com/blinkens-diplomatic-cart-will-have-a-bumpy-ride/

• Biden Administration’s ‘New’ Foreign Policy Is The ‘More Of The Same’ Old One

‘Joe Biden, who has been warmongering in the Senate for decades, is now being sold as fresh bread’

– moonofalabama.org/2021/01/biden-administrations-new-foreign-policy-is-more-of-the-same-old-one.html

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C2. Security (the state beyond ‘a pair of handcuffs’, monopolies of legitimate violence)

ee Security section focuses on the state (a pair of handcuffs, which sposedly has the monopoly of legitimate violence), and how the ‘national security’ doctrine is undermined by private interests, with no interest in divulging or fighting the real enemy, whose chief aim is to prevent an industrial renaissance as the basis of a truly independent nation.

• Sri Lanka has failed to contain COVID-19 within Western Province: GMOA

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-has-failed-to-contain-covid-19-within-western-province-gmoa-78110/

• Sri Lanka may be on the brink of community transmission: PHI Union

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-may-be-on-the-brink-of-community-transmission-phi-union-78103/

• Shavendra asks pvt. labs not to fleece public

– island.lk/shavendra-asks-pvt-labs-not-to-fleece-public/

• Complaints on exorbitant charges for COVID tests at private hospitals: Army Commander

– timesonline.lk/news-online/Complaints-on-exorbitant-charges-for-COVID-tests-at-private-hospitals:-Army-Commander/2-1131725

• Court grants Rs.100,000 surety bail on suspect for stealing coconut

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Court-grants-Rs-100-000-surety-bail-on-suspect-for-stealing-coconut/108-204131

• Govt. to amend three Acts relating to money laundering and terrorism financing

– dailymirror.lk/business-news/Govt-to-amend-three-Acts-relating-to-money-laundering-and-terrorism-financing/273-204110

– ft.lk/front-page/Legal-Draftsman-to-prepare-Bills-to-amend-key-Acts-on-financial-transparency-and-accountability/44-711865

• A cyber cooperation agenda with the US

 ‘Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data (CLOUD) Act of 2018 creates a framework for bilateral agreements to allow US and certified countries to lawfully access data kept in each other’s territories’

– ft.lk/columns/A-cyber-cooperation-agenda-with-the-US/4-711826

• Minister proposes military training for youth

– dailymirror.lk/top_story/Minister-proposes-military-training-for-youth/155-203939

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/18/military-training-for-all-above-the-age-of-18

– economynext.com/minister-to-propose-military-training-for-all-sri-lankans-over-18-77974

– dailymirror.lk/news-features/Military-Training-for-Youth-Explained/131-204091

– dailymirror.lk/news-features/Can-conscription-establish-a-disciplined-society/131-204093

– ft.lk/columns/Militarisation-continues-its-march-forward/4-712002

• Military training to youth over 18 years not financially realistic: SF

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Military-training-to-youth-over-18-years-not-financially-realisticSF/108-204152

– island.lk/sarath-pooh-poohs-saraths-plans/

• Govt. to promote Anagam Pora

– island.lk/govt-to-promote-anagam-pora/

• Police clarifies release of copper factory workers

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/21/police-clarifies-release-of-copper-factory-workers/

• Cardinal unsatisfied with the probes into the Easter attacks

– economynext.com/cardinal-laments-that-sri-lanka-is-working-to-turn-lies-into-truth-78087/

• Justice Minister Sabry disassociates his Ministry with recruitment of quazis

– island.lk/justice-minister-sabry-disassociates-his-ministry-with-recruitment-of-quazis/

• Govt. approves to revise Penal Code relate to statutory rape

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Govt-approves-to-revise-Penal-Code-relate-to-statutory-rape/108-204072

• No proper probe yet, says COPA

‘Rs.1.5 bn squandered on building rent: Ex-minister blamed for deal, now member of House Watchdog Committee’

– island.lk/no-proper-probe-yet-says-copa/

• Minimum Requirements for Law College Entrance Exam Amended

‘According to the gazette, all subjects in the final year examination of Sri Lanka law college will be conducted only in English from 2024.’

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/23/minimum-requirements-for-law-college-entrance-exam-amended/

• Proposal for recruiting lawyers as Chief Inspectors discarded

– island.lk/sarath-ali-sabry-powwow/

• Time to codify Contempt laws – Sunday Times Editorial

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/editorial/time-to-codify-contempt-laws-428989.html

• Contempt of Court case against GMOA President re-fixed for hearing on March 03 and 10

– island.lk/contempt-of-court-case-against-gmoa-president-re-fixed-for-hearing-on-march-03-and-10/

• Ranjan Ramanayake’s sentence is making him an unlikely hero

– economynext.com/ranjan-ramanayakes-sentence-is-making-him-an-unlikely-hero-77938/

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/columns/a-slip-of-the-tongue-and-a-celluloid-crusaders-unfortunate-downfall-428842.html

– island.lk/diyawanna-divine-court-or-palace-of-duplicity/

• What is wrong with the Judiciary?

– ft.lk/columns/What-is-wrong-with-the-Judiciary/4-711955

• PCR, Antigen testing methodology twisted at private hospitals: Army Chief

– dailymirror.lk/top_story/PCR-Antigen-testing-methodology-twisted-at-private-hospitals-Army-Chief/155-204227

• Dr. Kariyawasam elected Chairman, Municipal Standing Committee on Health and Sanitation

 – island.lk/dr-kariyawasam-elected-chairman-municipal-standing-committee-on-health-and-sanitation/

• Smokers to get first vaccine shots?

‘Tobacco kills more than 8 million people a year in the world’

– island.lk/make-killers-pay/

• Ukraine Embassy protests its tourists are blocked in hotels

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/news/ukraine-protests-its-tourists-are-blocked-in-hotels-429106.html

• Promoting Human Rights & Withholding Vaccines

– island.lk/virus-and-moral-failure/

• Sysco LABS extends its global hunger relief effort in Sri Lanka

‘Sysco LABS sought the support of 2 volunteer groups experienced in the area; the Robin Hood Army and Ghedora Connects are 2 well-known charity organizations… The Rotaract club of Achievers Lanka Business School also came on board…Meals prepared by Curries Kitchen and Curry Pot restaurants in Colombo. Shanil Fernando, Managing Director – Sri Lanka and SVP Engineering said the project was an extension of Sysco’s hunger relief efforts across the global…’

– island.lk/sysco-labs-extends-its-global-hunger-relief-effort-in-sri-lanka/

• Senior ASG Sarath Jayamanne retires after 32 years as a top prosecutor

– island.lk/senior-asg-sarath-jayamanne-retires-after-32-years-as-a-top-prosecutor/

• That Hazardous Ratmalana Wall

– island.lk/that-hazardous-ratmalana-wall/

– island.lk/slaf-on-hazardous-wall-sri-lanka-air-force-has-sent-us-the-following-statement/

• Personal contacts with top Burgher cops and other Public Servants of 50-years ago

‘In early 1958 the total number of officers of the rank of ASP and above was about 70. Of this number over 25 were Burgher Officers ranging from DIGs to Probationary ASPs.’

– island.lk/personal-contacts-with-top-burgher-cops-and-other-public-servants-of-50-years-ago/

• English Spies within Lebanon’s senior and middle ranking security and intelligence officers.

‘Identifies English ‘assets’ within Lebanon, how much they are paid, and what they do for that money’

– freenet.space/read-blog/836_op-hmg-trojan-horse-part-3-securing-lebanon-i.html

• New Documents Suggest J. Edgar Hoover Was Involved in Fred Hampton’s Murder

– blackagendareport.com/new-documents-suggest-j-edgar-hoover-was-involved-fred-hamptons-murder

• The Money Trail to the Siege at the Capitol Leads to Charles Koch and Koch Industries

– wallstreetonparade.com/2021/01/the-money-trail-to-the-siege-at-the-capitol-leads-to-charles-koch-and-koch-industries/

• Why Neoliberal Leaders Failed to Protect Countries From COVID-19 Must Be Investigated

– newsclick.in/Why-Neoliberal-Leaders-Failed-Protect-Their-Countries-COVID-19-Investigated

_____________________________________________________________

C3. Economists (Study the Economists before you study the Economics)

ee Economists shows how paid capitalist/academic ‘professionals’ confuse (misdefinitions, etc) and divert (with false indices, etc) from the steps needed to achieve an industrial country.

• Sri Lanka moves away from the notorious Structural Adjustment of the IMF

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/16/sri-lanka-moves-away-from-the-notorious-structural-adjustment-of-the-imf/

• Is innovation one of the downfalls of the Western world?

‘Sri Lankans are slaves of the Western world, since we need to part with 3.5 times of more resources to satisfy the value of $1 worth in the western world. Or Western world receives 3.5 times more satisfaction by just parting with $1.’

– ft.lk/columns/Is-innovation-one-of-the-downfalls-of-the-Western-world/4-711883

• Budget – Playing Ostrich or Parading in Emperor’s New Clothes? – Anila Dias Bandaranaike

‘The national budget is a financial plan, not a policy statement. Specific budget proposals become nonsense, unless they form part of a consistent whole. Unfortunately, Budget 2021 parts did not add up to a consistent whole. Yet, SL’s leadership in both public and private domains did not seem to care.’

– island.lk/budget-2021-playing-ostrich-or-parading-in-the-emperors-new-clothes/

• Retirement age Extension desirable but wider social security must be addressed – Wijewardene

‘great shrinkage of young people and old people taking their place is a dangerous signal…With 16 different pension schemes in operation in Sri Lanka today, there is duplication of the work.’
– ft.lk/columns/Extension-of-retirement-age-is-desirable-but-wider-social-security-issues-must-be-addressed/4-711726

• Pragmatic economic policies for post COVID economic growth – Sanderatne

‘The underperformance of the post independent economy has been primarily due to two reasons: communal violence and inappropriate policies’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/columns/pragmatic-economic-policies-for-post-covid-economic-growth-428836.html

• Buy it in Singapore – Abeyratne

‘“Nobody imports these parts and keeps stocks here, because there is not that much business here. Parts also get outdated and we will have to lose our money too.”’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/buy-it-in-singapore-428529.html

• Pathfinder webinar: ‘Business perspective on economic transformation in COVID era’

‘Moderated by Pathfinder Foundation Senior Fellow and Central Bank of Sri Lanka former Governor Indrajit Coomaraswamy, together with Washington-based Centennial Group Emerging Markets Forum Distinguished Fellow and Asian Development Bank former Managing Director General Rajat Nag’

– ft.lk/business/Pathfinder-Centennial-webinar-A-business-perspective-on-economic-transformation-in-the-COVID-era/34-711904

• New Delhi, Colombo and Tamils: The Adani Factor – Ameer Ali

‘Chinese are working in tens of thousands in China-initiated joint project’

– ft.lk/columns/New-Delhi-Colombo-and-Tamils-The-Adani-Factor/4-711880

• Is Sri Lanka a good country?

‘address is presented by Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology and Staffordshire University’

– dailymirror.lk/press-releases/Simon-Anholt-Is-Sri-Lanka-a-good-country/335-203837

• Vietnam points out its policy on Dong is for domestic stability not for trade advantages.

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-among-best-performing-stock-markets-after-venezuela-hanoi-77925/

• 30% of the US have zero or negative wealth

‘If more people emerge from the current crisis with neither money, nor jobs, nor access to health care, and if these people become desperate and angry… If governments have to resort to using paramilitary or military forces to quell, for example, riots or attacks on property, societies could begin to disintegrate.’

– indianpunchline.com/biden-is-shifting-leftwards/

• Financialisation or profitability?

‘Financialisation, like neoliberalism, is the buzz word among leftists and heterodox economists… financialisation is a hypothesis that looks only at the surface phenomena of the financial crash and concludes that the Great Recession was the result of financial recklessness by unregulated banks or a ‘financial panic’. Marx recognised the role of credit and financial speculation. But for him, financial investment was a counteracting factor to the tendency for the rate of profit to fall in capitalist accumulation.’

– thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2018/11/27/financialisation-or-profitability/

• Regulating the modern banking system does not work

‘Changing the rules or regulation of the banks won’t work; we need ownership and control’

– thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2018/10/06/regulation-does-not-work/

• Biden’s four years

– thenextrecession.wordpress.com/2021/01/20/bidens-four-years/

• IMF chief sees ‘high degree of uncertainty’ in global outlook

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/imf-chief-sees-high-degree-of-uncertainty-in-global-outlook

• McConnell Funded by Wall Street, Blocking Seating Democrats as Senate Committee Chairs

– wallstreetonparade.com/2021/01/mcconnell-heavily-funded-by-wall-street-is-blocking-seating-of-democrats-as-senate-committee-chairs/

____________________________________________

C4. Economy (Usually reported in monetary terms)

ee Economy section shows how the economy is usually measured by false indices like GDP, etc, and in monetary terms, confusing money and capital, while calling for privatization and deregulation, etc.

• Food prices increase in December 2020

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/ncpi-based-inflation-decreased-in-december-2020/

• Banks in Sri Lanka ordered to delay dividends, profit repatriation, curb ads, travel

– economynext.com/banks-in-sri-lanka-ordered-to-delay-dividends-profit-repatriation-curb-ads-travel-78057/

• CB allows banks to pay dividends, Reversing May 2020 decision

– ft.lk/top-story/CB-allows-banks-to-pay-dividends/26-711927

• Sri Lanka pushing PayPal to do inward payments for over 8 years: CB official

‘There has been speculation that restrictions on opening foreign bank accounts by residents in Sri Lanka’s foreign exchange laws may have spooked Paypal’s legal team, but there has been no confirmation.’

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-pushing-paypal-to-do-inward-payments-for-over-8-years-cb-official-78045/

• Sri Lanka forex support on ‘non-interventionist’ basis, no IMF talks yet: CB Governor

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-forex-support-on-non-interventionist-basis-no-imf-talks-yet-cb-governor-78051/

• FSP sees something sinister in President attempting to simplify rules and regulations

– island.lk/fsp-sees-something-sinister-in-president-attempting-to-simplify-rules-and-regulations/

• The Govt. is trapped in a huge mess and muddle: Harsha

‘the biggest challenge Sri Lanka faces is to meet her foreign debt commitments in 2021 and beyond’

– dailymirror.lk/opinion/The-Govt-is-trapped-in-a-huge-mess-and-muddle-Harsha/172-204231

• Rupee under pressure amid weaker inflows, slide in dollar conversion and deferred payments

‘The Sri Lankan rupee came under acute pressure last week amid a temporary drought in inflows, deferred payments for imports coming in and exporters showing reluctance to convert foreign currency, causing some liquidity shortfall in the dollar market.’

– dailymirror.lk/business-news/Rupee-comes-under-pressure-amid-weaker-inflows-slide-in-dollar-conversion-and-deferred-payments/273-203958

• Sri Lanka excess liquidity drops ahead of dollar bond repayment

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-excess-liquidity-drops-ahead-of-dollar-bond-repayment-78070/

• Sri Lanka sells 40bn rupees of bills at auction

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-sells-40bn-rupees-of-bills-at-auction-78068/

• Decision on $1.5b China swap within fortnight

– ft.lk/front-page/Decision-on-1-5-b-China-swap-within-fortnight/44-711871

• CBSL foresees brighter growth prospects in 2021

 – island.lk/cbsl-foresees-brighter-growth-prospects-in-2021/

 • Dovish Central Bank introduces small biz lending targets

‘priority sector lending targets for the MSME sector’

– dailymirror.lk/business__main/Dovish-Central-Bank-introduces-small-biz-lending-targets/245-204113

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/cb-to-introduce-priority-sector-lending-targets-for-msmes

– ft.lk/top-story/Priority-lending-for-MSMEs-CB/26-711873

• Sri Lanka Development Bond auction gets few bids, balance offered on tap

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-development-bond-auction-gets-few-bids-balance-offered-on-tap-78035/

• Pandemic causes 25% of local startups to collapse

– dailymirror.lk/business-news/Pandemic-causes-25-of-local-startups-to-collapse/273-204111

• Biden-Harris administration, US-China relations and need for co-operation – Editorial

– dailymirror.lk/opinion/Biden-Harris-administration-US-China-relations-and-need-for-co-operation-EDITORIAL/172-204095

• Major General (Rtd.) Chandrasiri appointed to Bank of Ceylon board

– dailymirror.lk/business-news/Major-General-Rtd-Chandrasiri-appointed-to-BOC-board/273-203957

• China’s GDP tops 100 trillion yuan in 2020

– ft.lk/front-page/China-s-GDP-tops-100-t-yuan-in-2020-with-2-3-growth-despite-global-COVID-impact/44-711797

• from Janet Yellen’s Confirmation Hearing for Treasury Secretary

– wallstreetonparade.com/2021/01/janet-yellen-is-set-to-inherit-a-helluva-lot-of-power-thanks-to-stealthy-changes-in-the-law/

_________________________________________________________________________

C5. Workers (Inadequate Stats, Wasteful Transport, Unmodern Plantations, Services)

ee Workers attempts to correct the massive gaps and disinformation about workers, urban and rural and their representatives (trade unions, etc), and to highlight the need for organized worker power

• Communist Party Leader on Colombo Port

“Asian Development Bank has demanded privatization of ports”

– youtube.com/watch?v=ykaDusZwv4s

• Trade unions warn of boycotting India’s products

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/21/trade-unions-warn-of-boycotting-indias-products/

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/21/allies-trying-to-protect-government-lalkantha/

• Planters outraged by mob-violence on Park Estate Kandapola

– timesonline.lk/news-online/Planters-outraged-by-mob-violence-on-Park-Estate-Kandapola/2-1131732

– ft.lk/front-page/Planters-decry-mob-violence-at-Park-Estate-Kandapola-demand-swift-legal-action-against-perpetrators/44-712031

• Nuwara-Eliya estate in turmoil over workers demand for land

‘Uda Pussallawa Plantation Company has been under pressure to release a part of the estate land for the construction of 306 housing units, under Indian-sponsored project’

– island.lk/nuwara-eliya-estate-in-turmoil-over-workers-demand-for-land/

• National Minimum Wage of Workers Act & others to be amended

‘The Immigrants and Emigrants Act, Stamp Duty (Special Provisions) Act No. 12 of 2006 and Provincial Councils, National Minimum Wage of Workers Act No. 3 of 2016, Community based Corrections Act No. 46 of 1999 and Section 53 of the Penal Code (provisions applicable for imposing the death penalty on minors) would be amended’

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Five-Acts-to-be-amended-to-cater-to-present-day-requirements/108-204075

• ‘Don’t tamper with EPF Act’, says union

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/dont-tamper-with-epf-act-says-union-428507.html

• Firms rationalising biz, laying off staff

‘More and more companies… are gearing to grant Voluntary Resignation Schemes (VRS) to staff with an idea to encourage those willing to leave to do so on their own accord’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/firms-rationalising-biz-laying-off-staff-428541.html

• National Council of Trade Unions to Safeguard the ECT

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/ect-struggle-to-intensify-428538.html

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/stormy-ports-428534.html

– ft.lk/columns/Colombo-ECT-Embers-glowing-bureaucratic-incompetence/4-711997

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/22/trade-unions-oppose-indias-involvement-in-ect/

• Viyathmaga Movement’s stance on ECT

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/22/viyathmaga-movements-stance-on-ect/

• President assures Trade Unions that East Container Terminal will not be sold or leased

– island.lk/president-assures-trade-unions-that-east-container-terminal-will-not-be-sold-or-leased/

• I didn’t entertain requests to give ECT: Maithripala Sirisena

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/I-didnt-entertain-requests-to-give-ECT-Maithripala-Sirisena/108-204291

– island.lk/ms-opposes-ect-deal-with-india/

• ECT of Colombo Port: UNP rejects any agreement with foreign country

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/ECT-of-Colombo-Port-UNP-rejects-any-agreement-with-foreign-country/108-204293

• UNP denies its government agreed to sell the ECT

– adaderana.lk/news/70974/unp-denies-its-government-agreed-to-sell-the-ect

• Tea prices ‘good’ in 2020 with low growns as biggest contributor to high average

John Keells Tea Market report said the demand from Turkey, Iran, Russia, and CIS countries lent fair support. Libya and Iraq too were active in Colombo’

– island.lk/tea-prices-good-in-2020-with-low-growns-as-biggest-contributor-to-high-average/

• Are tea workers still not at the ‘tea party’?

‘There are around five main trade unions operating in the estates including the Lanka Jathika Estate Workers Union (LJEWU) and the Ceylon Workers’ Congress (CWC).’

– dailymirror.lk/news-features/Are-tea-workers-still-not-at-the-tea-party/131-204092

• Trade unions accuse plantation companies of delaying implementation of budget proposals

– sundaytimes.lk/article/1132492/plantation-companies-submit-formula-for-wages-of-workers

• No deal on Rs.1000 bench mark for plantation workers

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/No-deal-on-Rs-1000-bench-mark-for-plantation-workers/108-203949

• Plantation sector wage deal hits deadlock

‘Estate sector unions oppose proposal to extend duration of Collective Agreement up to 4 years’

– dailymirror.lk/business__main/Plantation-sector-wage-deal-hits-deadlock/245-203960

• Regional Plantation Companies put the ball in trade unions’court

– island.lk/rpcs-put-the-ball-in-trade-unionscourt/

• RPCs lay out final proposal to remunerate workers Rs.1105 per day

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/rpcs-lay-out-final-proposal-to-remunerate-workers-rs-1105-per-day/

• Plantation companies submit formula for wages of workers

– sundaytimes.lk/article/1132492/plantation-companies-submit-formula-for-wages-of-workers

• Plantation sector wage deal hits deadlock

– dailymirror.lk/business__main/Plantation-sector-wage-deal-hits-deadlock/245-203960

• PHI Union warn of critical time in coming weeks in terms of Covid-19

– dailymirror.lk/top_story/PHIs-warn-of-critical-time-in-coming-weeks-in-terms-of-Covid-19/155-204090

• A long lockdown in the ‘watte’

‘‘60-Watte’, home to about 400 families, nestling amidst posh and palatial houses and apartments down Torrington Avenue in the heart of Cinnamon Gardens…a majority of women in 60-Watte are domestic-aides’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/plus/a-long-lockdown-in-the-watte-428441.html

• Sri Lanka ends 2020 with record workers’ remittance income

he World Bank in April, at the height of the pandemic, predicted a 19 percent collapse in worker remittances to Sri Lanka’

– dailymirror.lk/business-news/Sri-Lanka-ends-2020-with-record-workers-remittance-income/273-204112

• Kuwait resumes recruitment of domestic helpers from Sri Lanka

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Kuwait-resumes-recruitment-of-domestic-helpers-from-Sri-Lanka/108-203921

• More than 500 stranded foreign workers in Oman repatriated

 – economynext.com/more-than-500-stranded-foreign-workers-in-oman-repatriated-78047/

• Protest Against Financial Fraud in Foreign employment

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/23/protest-against-financial-fraud-2/

• 50% of schools lack proper water supply

– island.lk/infrastructure-facilities-in-our-schools-a-thing-that-begs-a-critical-look/

• Identify schools without facilities : PM

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/20/gazettes-a-pathway-to-corruption-akd/

• World Bank wants to continue investing in Sri Lanka’s future generations

– ft.lk/columns/Let-s-continue-investing-in-Sri-Lanka-s-future-generations/4-711998

• On Day 1 Joe Biden Destroyed Women’s Sports

‘Executive Order on Preventing and Combating Discrimination on the Basis of Gender Identity or Sexual Orientation’

– moonofalabama.org/2021/01/on-day-1-president-joe-biden-destroyed-womens-sports.html

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C6. Agriculture (Robbery of rural home market; Machines, if used, mainly imported)

ee Agriculture emphasizes the failure to industrialize on an agriculture that keeps the cultivator impoverished under moneylender and merchant, and the need to protect the rural home market. Also, importation of agricultural machinery, lack of rural monetization and commercialization, etc.

• Implementing the Paddy Lands Act of 1958 – the Cultivation Committees

‘The Act safeguarded tenants, but there were no records of tenants or of landlords. New records of land ownership, tenancy, etc. had to be created from scratch before implementation could even begin.’

– island.lk/implementing-the-paddy-lands-act-of-1958-the-cultivation-committees/

• Over 565,000 metric tons of paddy expected from Mahaweli Lands this Maha season

– ft.lk/business/Over-565-000-metric-tons-of-paddy-expected-from-Mahaweli-Lands-this-Maha-season/34-712018

• Sri Lanka banks ordered not to recover bad loans from paddy millers

 – economynext.com/sri-lanka-banks-ordered-not-to-recover-bad-loans-from-paddy-millers-78059/

• CIC delivers landmark 9-month after tax profit of Rs. 2.8 billion

– ft.lk/front-page/CIC-delivers-landmark-9-month-after-tax-profit-of-Rs-2-8-b/44-712029

• Environmentalist accuses Govt. of trickery to hand over 800,000 acres to pvt. companies

 ‘70,000 acres in Demaliya and Wandama were being given to a company engaged in sugarcane cultivation, and almost all those lands were those used by small scale farmers and cattle herders…Among the lands that were given were those earmarked for those displaced by the Uma Oya project. The previous administrations tried to provide irrigation water to those lands through the Handapanagala scheme. Another 62,000 acres have been earmarked in Moneragala, Ampara and Badulla districts for sugarcane cultivation. 80% of these lands are chena cultivations. In Rambaken Oya, 5,426 acres have been earmarked for 15 companies to carry out various agro projects and most of these lands are now used by small-scale cattle herders. Recently, the Department of Agriculture wrote to the Forest Conservation Department requesting that 80,000 acres in Moneragala, Anuradhapura and Badulla districts be released. These lands are to be used for corn cultivation. The Forest Conservation Department then asked the Department of Agriculture to identify the lands and we know that these lands for the most part are those used by small-scale cattle herders and chena cultivators.”

– island.lk/environmentalist-accuses-govt-of-resorting-to-trickery-to-hand-over-800000-acres-to-pvt-companies/

• Sugar tax reduction profited businessmen linked to Govt. while losses to state Rs. 10 b: Eran

 – ft.lk/front-page/Sugar-tax-reduction-profited-businessmen-linked-to-Govt-while-losses-to-state-around-Rs-10-b-Eran/44-711867

• Karu says alleged sugar tax fraud could sour President’s reputation

‘The apolitical National Movement for Social Justice (NMSJ) Chairman Karu Jayasuriya (former President of the Sugar Importers’ Association) said yesterday…’

– ft.lk/front-page/Karu-says-alleged-sugar-tax-fraud-could-sour-President-s-reputation/44-711988

• Govt. insists no fraud in sugar imports

– island.lk/govt-insists-no-fraud-in-sugar-imports/

– island.lk/when-sugar-tastes-bitter/

• Gazettes; a pathway to corruption : AKD

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/20/gazettes-a-pathway-to-corruption-akd/

• Govt. to abolish Colombo Commercial Fertiliser Co., and form Organic Fertiliser Authority

– island.lk/govt-to-abolish-colombo-commercial-fertiliser-co-and-form-organic-fertiliser-authority/

• Coastal reservoirs – A paradigm shift in development of water resources

‘8.4% of the population still have no access to safe drinking water’

– island.lk/coastal-reservoirs-a-paradigm-shift-in-development-of-water-resources/

• President instructs officials to understand problems of people

‘all farmers will be given permission to continue with traditional cultivations without any hindrance’

– island.lk/president-instructs-officials-to-understand-problems-of-people/

• Recent budget allocated less than 6% to development of agriculture

‘More than 70% of people live in the villages’

– island.lk/is-government-in-self-destructive-mode/

• Great potential for expansion of rubber cultivation

‘Only 60% of local requirement of latex was produced in the country’

– island.lk/great-potential-for-expansion-of-rubber-cultivation/

• Evergreen’s ‘Brombil, largest tea producing factory’

‘Evergreen group is one of the largest tea producing groups in Sri Lanka with 12 factories under their operations namely, Evergreen, Brombil, Thundola, Talangaha, Katandola, Wathurawila, Walahanduwa, Hill Garden, Rekadahena, Kanneliya, Lihiniyawa and Marakanda.’

– island.lk/brombil-largest-tea-producing-factory/

• Australia’s MDF, Biomass Supplies to promote sustainable agro-energy, improve rural lives

 ‘MDF is funded by the Australian Government and implemented by Palladium, in partnership with Swisscontact’

– ft.lk/business/Australia-s-MDF-Biomass-Supplies-partner-to-promote-sustainable-agro-energy-improve-rural-livelihoods/34-711821

• House Hit by Sea and Family by Bureaucracy

‘A poor fisherman’s family allegedly displaced by Port City project is to be evacuated’

– dailymirror.lk/news-features/House-Hit-by-Sea-and-Family-by-Bureaucracy/131-204037

• Another Online COPE Meeting in Parliament

‘The COPE Committee has summoned the Coconut Development Authority to Parliament’

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/another-online-cope-meeting-in-parliament/

• Myths and facts of coconut oil and palm oil

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/myths-and-facts-of-coconut-oil-and-palm-oil-428517.html

• Monks, native physicians call for legalising cannabis for medical purposes

– island.lk/monks-native-physicians-call-for-legalising-cannabis-for-medical-purposes/

• Fall armyworm: Strategies for effective management

– island.lk/fall-armyworm/

• The ‘Sena’ Caterpillar invasion: Where are we heading?

– island.lk/the-sena-caterpillar-invasion-where-are-we-heading/

• Staggering 10,377 pollution sources along Menik Ganga

 – island.lk/staggering-10377-pollution-sources-along-menik-ganga/

• 20 arrested for illegal excavations which would have posed danger to Samanala dam

– island.lk/20-arrested-for-illegal-excavations-which-would-have-posed-danger-to-samanala-dam/

• No one allowed to carry out development work in Muthurajawela sanctuary – State Minister

– island.lk/no-one-will-be-allowed-to-carry-out-any-development-work-in-the-muthurajawela-sanctuary-state-minister/

• Invasive Mimosa diplotricha in Puttalam District

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/plus/have-you-seen-this-invader-428475.html

• Slaughter of buffaloes in Knuckles Range

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Slaughter-of-buffaloes-in-Knuckles-Range/108-203947

• Are some exploiting President’s instructions to rape Kalabalaluwewa reserve?

 – island.lk/are-some-exploiting-presidents-instructions-to-rape-kalabalaluwewa-reserve/

• Environmentalists mull legal action over destruction of Muthurajawela wetlands

– island.lk/environmentalists-mull-legal-action-over-destruction-of-muthurajawela-wetlands/

• Harsha incurs wrath of ministers for taking up issue of road building in Sinharaja

– island.lk/harsha-incurs-wrath-of-ministers-for-taking-up-issue-of-road-building-in-sinharaja/

• Sooriyawewa farmers’ hunger strike: Two hospitalised

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Sooriyawewa-farmers-hunger-strike-Two-hospitalised/108-204287

• New managed elephant reserve in Sooriyawewa : Chamal

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/21/new-managed-elephant-reserve-in-sooriyawewa-chamal/

• Karu: Army can help solve human-elephant conflict

– island.lk/karu-army-can-help-solve-human-elephant-conflict/

• Environmentalists point out folly of building another elephant holding ground

– island.lk/environmentalists-point-out-folly-of-building-another-elephant-holding-ground/

– island.lk/authorities-keep-mum-over-plea-not-to-build-another-elephant-holding-ground/

• FSP to hold protest today in support of striking Indian farmers

“There is no MCC agreement here but the Gotabaya Rajapaksa administration has agreed to amend 3 laws. Once these are amended, Sri Lankan farmers will face the same fate as their Indian counterparts. We have to show solidarity with Indian farmers today because it will be our fate tomorrow.”

– island.lk/fsp-to-hold-protest-today-in-support-of-striking-indian-farmers/

_____________________________________________________________________

C7. Industry (False definitions, anti-industrial sermons, rentier/entrepreneur, etc)

ee Industry section notes the ignorance about industrialization, the buying of foreign machinery, the need to make machines that make machines, build a producer culture. False definitions of industry, entrepreneur, etc, abound.

• Coal prices soar, aggravating CEB woes

‘Coal prices had been extremely low in 2020 and that it was not wise to make long term predictions with those numbers.“We also have to factor in corruption too unfortunately.”’

– island.lk/coal-prices-soar-aggravating-ceb-woes/

• Serious irregularities in coal purchases: Bandara

– ft.lk/front-page/Serious-irregularities-in-coal-purchases-Bandara/44-712035

– ft.lk/front-page/Lanka-Coal-denies-price-fixing/44-712034

• Mystery surrounds dropping of two vital hydro power projects by CEB during yahapalana rule

– island.lk/mystery-surrounds-dropping-of-two-vital-hydro-power-projects-by-ceb-during-yahapalana-rule/

• Hybrid Renewable Energy Grid to be installed in Nainatheevu, Delft, Analaitheevu islands

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Hybrid-Renewable-Energy-Grid-to-be-installed-in-Nainatheevu-Delft-Analaitheevu-islands/108-204074

– island.lk/usd-12-mn-project-to-power-jaffna-islands-with-renewable-energy/

• Litro Gas: Journey over 150 years from Gas Paha Junction to SL’s energy sector leader

‘The Company owns a network of 42 distributors, approximately 14,000 point-of-sale locations and 1,500 home delivery hubs…with over 76% market share’

– ft.lk/business/Litro-Gas-Journey-of-over-150-years-from-Gas-Paha-Junction-to-becoming-SL-s-energy-sector-leader/34-712019

• Environmental group rings warning bells over Aussie Co. plan to mine limonite in Mannar

– island.lk/environmental-group-rings-warning-bells-over-aussie-co-plan-to-mine-limonite-in-mannar-island/

• SL to venture into gold exploration: Ministry

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/SL-to-venture-into-gold-exploration-Ministry/108-204098

• Expert Committee appointed to report on gold, copper and iron ore deposits

– island.lk/expert-committee-appointed-to-report-on-gold-copper-and-iron-ore-deposits/

• French Ambassador visits Colombo Dockyard

‘CDPLC operates in joint collaboration with Onomichi Dockyard Company Limited of Japan who owns a stake of 51% at Colombo Dockyard PLC. CDPLC also has a 35% shareholding by the Sri Lankan Government institutions’

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/french-ambassador-visits-colombo-dockyard/

• Sri Lanka revises ‘local value addition matrix’ for assembled vehicles

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-revises-local-value-addition-matrix-for-assembled-vehicles-77910/

• Factories face tough times in 2021

‘Those companies engaged in the manufacture of products like rubber gloves for surgical and non-surgical nature are in demand; in addition those producing electronic items have benefited since their products are in high demand as the medical sector requires fibre optic-based medical equipment.’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/factories-face-tough-times-in-2021-428551.html

• Bitter truth of Hingurana Sugar factory revival

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/bitter-truth-of-hingurana-sugar-factory-revival-428501.html

• SJB MP reveals how Aussie-Lanka combine gypped MR Govt on Embiliptiya Paper Mill

– island.lk/sjb-mp-reveals-how-aussie-lanka-combine-gypped-mahinda-rajapaksa-govt/

• Mila Fashion inks agreement with BoI to build modern garment factory at Welioya

‘Mila Fashion (part of the Design Studio Group) is supplier of choice for high street retailers in England & Europe, including Primark, ASDA, Sainsbury’s, ASOS, Next and River Island, from its network of factories in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. DSG employs over 2,000 in Pandulagama (Anuradhapura) and Etawa (Kurunegala)…’

– island.lk/mila-fashion-inks-agreement-with-boi-to-build-modern-garment-factory-at-welioya/

• State Minister wants State Development and Constructions Corporation to make profits

– island.lk/state-minister-wants-sdcc-to-make-profits-and-contribute-towards-the-economy/

• UDA to amend 34 year-old Planning and Development regulations

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/uda-reviews-expert-submissions-on-planning-and-development-regulations-428521.html

• Stafford purchasing used two-wheelers

– island.lk/stafford-motors-starts-their-two-wheeler-recon-operations/

• 60% importers, vehicles sale owner shut down their businesses: VIAL

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/60-importers-vehicles-sale-owner-shut-down-their-businesses-VIAL/108-204143

• Novel product from Browns Veterinary Pharmaceuticals

– island.lk/novel-product-from-browns-veterinary-pharmaceuticals/

• Covid-19 vaccine equivalent Sinhala Vedakam physician achieves international fame

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/17/covid-19-vaccine-equivalent-sinhala-wedakam-physician-achieves-international-fame/

• Sri Lanka, Vietnam ICT sectors explore co-operation

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-vietnam-ict-sectors-explore-co-operation-78111/

• Cuba readies 100 million doses of anti-COVID vaccine

– en.granma.cu/cuba/2021-01-22/cuba-readies-100-million-doses-of-anti-covid-vaccine

______________________________________________________________________

C8. Finance (Making money from money, banks, lack of investment in modernity)

ee Finance tracks the effects of financialization, the curious role of ratings agencies, false indices, etc.

• CB warns public to beware of proliferation of financial scams

– island.lk/cb-warns-public-to-beware-of-proliferation-of-financial-scams/

• Sri Lanka central bank keeps policy loose amid negative forward fx premiums

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-central-bank-keeps-policy-loose-amid-negative-forward-fx-premiums-78003/

• BOC awaits $70 m second tranche of Chinese Bank facility

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/boc-awaits-70-m-second-tranche-of-chinese-bank-facility-428495.html

• WB’s International Finance Corporation approves $7m funding for Sunshine Holdings

– ft.lk/front-page/IFC-approves-7-m-funding-for-Sunshine-Holdings/44-711801

• Six failed finance companies had Rs 62 billion in deposits

– island.lk/six-failed-finance-companies-had-rs-62-billion-in-deposits/

• People’s Merchant Finance goes for revised Rights Issue to raise Rs. 811.8 m

– ft.lk/front-page/People-s-Merchant-Finance-goes-for-revised-Rights-Issue-to-raise-Rs-811-8-m/44-711800

– island.lk/peoples-merchant-finance-goes-for-right-issue/

• Berendina Micro Investment Company serves struggling rural and plantation communities

‘Berendina, a Dutch iNGO focusing on poverty alleviation since 1987, has been serving more than 83,000 people organised into clusters in 11 districts’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/berendina-serves-struggling-rural-and-plantation-communities-during-covid-19-428510.html

• Fully subscribed Rights Issue of Prime Finance bolsters its core capital

‘Core Capital of the Company now exceed Rs. 2.1 billion…’

– island.lk/fully-subscribed-rights-issue-of-prime-finance-bolsters-its-core-capital/

• Trump and the Bank Supporters

– island.lk/america-dumps-toxic-trump/

___________________________________________________________________________________

C9. Business (Rentierism: money via imports, real-estate, tourism, insurance, fear, privatization)

ee Business aka ee Rentier focuses on diversions of the oligarchy, making money from unproductive land sales, tourism, insurance, advertising, etc. – the charade of press releases disguised as ‘news’

• CSE: A gamblers’ paradise

‘The Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE) is fast seen becoming a ‘gambling joint’’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/cse-a-gamblers-paradise-428554.html

• Sri Lanka savers warned on stock scams as interest rates fall

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-savers-warned-on-stock-scams-as-interest-rates-fall-78039/

• ASPI records biggest single day points gain as LOLC drives extremely bullish market

– island.lk/aspi-records-biggest-single-day-points-gain-as-lolc-drives-extremely-bullish-market/

• Buying interest in banking sector counters

– island.lk/buying-interest-in-banking-sector-counters/

• Sri Lanka stocks up 24-pct in 2021, overtakes Vietnam, trails Venezuela

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-stocks-up-24-pct-in-2021-overtakes-vietnam-trails-venezuela-78117

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-stocks-hit-new-high-investors-rs318bn-richer-over-week-78112/

• Sri Lanka rupee closes at 197.00/200.00 to greenback in spot next

– economynext.com/sri-lanka-rupee-closes-at-197-00-200-00-to-greenback-in-spot-next-78116/

• Global businessman Rothschild on business/pleasure trip

‘He met political figures including President Gotabaya Rajapaksa and UNP leader Ranil Wickremesinghe in addition to top corporate personalities…“We learnt of his visit to the Maldives on his luxury yacht & decided to invite him to visit SL to look at the prospects of investing,” Brito said…’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/business-times/global-businessman-rothschild-on-businesspleasure-trip-428547.html

• Highly impressed with SL Govt. and its pandemic response: Nat Rothschild

“Just finished a trip to learn first hand about SL’s suitability as a manufacturing location for electronics.”

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Highly-impressed-with-SL-Govt-and-its-pandemic-response-Nat-Rothschild/108-204226

• Dhammika drives stock market to dizzy heights with mega share sub-division move

– ft.lk/front-page/Dhammika-drives-stock-market-to-dizzy-heights-with-mega-share-sub-division-move/44-711984

• Hayleys Group announces massive share sub division

‘The sub division would not increase the stated capital of any company, but will increase the liquidity of the shares as the number of existing share increases’

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/hayleys-group-announces-massive-share-sub-division/

• Melstacorp sheds small stake in Distilleries Company

– ft.lk/front-page/Melstacorp-sheds-small-stake-in-DCSL/44-711798

• Profit-taking in LOLC Group as banking sector performs okay

– island.lk/profit-taking-in-lolc-group-as-banking-sector-performs-okay/

– ft.lk/financial-services/LOLC-Finance-introduces-Savi-first-ever-credit-card-for-pensioners-and-state-employees/42-711888

• LOLC General Insurance looking at expanding into potential international markets

‘With a saturated Motor market and the challenge of limited new registrations for the foreseeable future, the price and service will be key in this sphere. The Non-Motor market is noticeably under-penetrated…

– island.lk/lolc-general-insurance-looking-at-expanding-into-potential-international-markets/

• Fitch revises 7, affirms 7 SL non-financial corporates’ ratings on National Rating scale revision

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/fitch-revises-7-affirms-7-sl-non-financial-corporates-ratings-on-national-rating-scale-revision/

• Fitch Ratings upgrades Sierra Cables

‘the most transparent credit rating agency’

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/sierra-cables-plcs-credit-rating-upgraded-to-aa-stable-outlook-by-fitch-rating-and-continues-superior-financial-performance-into-the-third-quarter/

• Billionaire investor Nathaniel Rothschild visited Sierra Cables

– ft.lk/front-page/10-of-Sierra-Cables-up-for-grabs-on-All-or-None-basis/44-711986

• ‘Bad Boy Billionaires’ of Sri Lanka

9,054 people entrusted their monies with Golden Key… most of the big depositors are businessmen who understand finance. They would have known that the unrealistically high interest rates paid by Golden Key could not be sustained.’

– island.lk/bad-boy-billionaires-of-sri-lanka/

• SL Tariff concession for Mongolia

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/tariff-concession-for-mongolia/

• Rising startups keen to tap stock market for external funding

– island.lk/rising-startups-keen-to-tap-stock-market-for-external-funding/

• Standard Chartered Sri Lanka donates to mprove digital learning for rural students

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/standard-chartered-sri-lanka-donates-to-foundation-of-goodness-to-improve-digital-learning-for-rural-students/

• Design Festival 2021

‘organized by the Academy of Design, stems from an agenda of national interest to power 3 key identified industries – craft SMEs, agriculture and tourism…speakers Chris Sanderson & Martin Raymond, co-founders of The Future Laboratory, a strategic foresight consultancy’

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/plus/sustainable-tourism-and-lessons-from-bhutans-happiness-philosophy-428457.html

• Inaugural meet of Austrian Business Circle, Sri Lanka

– island.lk/inaugural-meet-of-austrian-business-circle-sri-lanka/

______________________________________________________

C10. Politics (Anti-parliament discourse, unelected constitution)

ee Politics points to the constant media diversions and the mercantile and financial forces behind the political actors, of policy taken over by private interests minus public oversight.

• Govt. MPs before new Constitution making committee today

– island.lk/govt-mps-before-new-constitution-making-committee-today/

• Female Local Government members to fight abuse at the hands of their male counterparts

– island.lk/female-lg-members-to-fight-abuse-at-the-hands-of-their-male-counterparts

– island.lk/macho-neanderthals/

– ft.lk/columns/More-women-in-politics-for-better-politics/4-711825

• Women & Media fulfil USAID funding Criteria

‘Women, quota, media…’

– twitter.com/womenandmedia/status/1351459689939128323?s=0

• Government mismanaging state assets it had undertaken to protect: senior Buddhist monks

– island.lk/of-those-walls/

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/21/maha-sangha-members-criticize-government/

• Champika’s conundrum

‘Champika Ranawaka seems to have “neo-conned” Sinhala Buddhist nationalists without abandoning the Sinhala Buddhist nationalist ship.’

– gammiris.lk/champikas-conundrum/

• Ruwan sees people cursing President’s broken promises

– island.lk/ruwan-sees-people-cursing-presidents-broken-promises/

• Ranil mocks govt. for begging from businessmen USD 10m to import vaccine

– island.lk/ranil-mocks-govt-for-begging-from-businessmen-usd-10m-to-import-vaccine/

• The Pohottuwa Government of Sri Lanka Partb2 C9 E, G,H

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/20/the-pohottuwa-government-of-sri-lanka-part-2-c9e/

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/18/the-pohottuwa-government-of-sri-lanka-part-2-c9g/

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/17/the-pohottuwa-government-of-sri-lanka-partb2-c9h/

• In Sri Lanka…caste says a lot – P.K.Balachandran

‘In Sri Lanka, caste is a social marker or factor in arranged marriages; the organization of the Buddhist clergy into Nikayas, in political mobilization, and in the composition of the power elite.’

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/16/whats-in-a-name/

• The conspiracy against SNP’s Alex Salmond

– craigmurray.org.uk/

• US Propped Up Nazi Germany Post-1945

‘Out of the 53,000 state functionaries originally dismissed due to their Nazi connections, only a thousand stood excluded and the rest were reinstated, especially in the judiciary. The Allies, especially the US, moved ahead to repress the Left. In 1956, the German Communist Party was outlawed. ‘

– newsclick.in/liberal-illiberalism-left-history

• Recalled to Life: America’s Brush with Neo-Fascism

– island.lk/-to-recalled life-americas-brush-with-neo-fascism/

• Lessons Learnt from Lies of Trump

‘There are more troops (20,000 National Guards) now in Washington D.C. than all the troops in Afghanistan, Iran and Syria put together’

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/16/lessons-learnt-from-lies-of-trump/

• USA is not a democracy – Sarath de Alwis

– ft.lk/columns/In-praise-of-Trump/4-711790

• Interview with Radhika Desai on reading Marx’s Capital

‘Radhika is a professor at the University of Manitoba, director of the Geopolitical Economy Research Group, and author of several books including ‘Geopolitical Economy – After US Hegemony, Globalization and Empire’’

– youtube.com/watch?v=8EkpdYH0Bhg

• First female UN Chief: Still a political fantasy?

– sundaytimes.lk/210117/sunday-times-2/first-female-un-chief-still-a-political-fantasy-428891.html

• Let Indian-American community remain a progressive force in US politics

– indianpunchline.com/bidens-idea-of-india-and-savarkars-are-poles-apart/

• Black voters have saved the corporate duopoly

– blackagendareport.com/trump-othello-corporate-theater

__________________________________________________________

C11. Media (Mis/Coverage of economics, technology, science and art)

ee Media shows how corporate media monopoly determines what is news, art, culture, etc. The media is part of the public relations (corporate propaganda) industry. The failure to highlight our priorities, the need to read between the lines. To set new perspectives and priorities.

• Hela Havula marks 80th Anniversary

‘The formation of the Hela Havula, on January 11, 1941, is a day to remember as this significant event impacted heavily on the preservation of the Sinhala language and its idiom in the last 80 years.’

– island.lk/hela-havula-marks-80th-anniversary/

• Adfactors PR, India’s largest public relations consultancy: first ever ‘Millennial Board’

‘Adfactors PR Lanka commenced operations 6 years ago… Adfactors PR Lanka derives large revenue from the public affairs practice. A recent addition is the strategic communications practice, which manages high profile industry issues and communications towards policy reform… issues and crisis management using its proprietary tools in social media monitoring, and…growing technology and healthcare verticals’ The Millennial Board will have 5 sub-committees focusing on digital transformation, innovation, learning and development, organisational culture, and growth.

– ft.lk/business/Adfactors-PR-constitutes-The-Millennial-Board-an-industry-first-initiative-to-include-millennials-in-decision-and-policy-making-process-of-the-firm/34-711979

• Centenary celebrations of university education in Sri Lanka

– island.lk/centenary-celebrations-of-university-education-in-sri-lanka/

• George Steuart & Co commences restoration of centuries-old artifacts

– timesonline.lk/business/George-Steuart—Co-commences-restoration-of-centuries-old-artifacts/10-1131718

• India’s Editor’s Guild attacks Adani

– dailymirror.lk/breaking_news/Indias-Editors-Guild-attacks-Adani/108-204208

– newsfirst.lk/2021/01/21/editors-guild-of-india-urges-adani-group-to-withdraw-defamation-case/

“The Historical and Philosophical Background of Buddhist festivals in Sri Lanka”

– lankaweb.com/news/items/2021/01/22/the-historical-and-philosophical-background-of-buddhist-festivals-in-sri-lanka-ven-dr-rambukwelle-devananda/

• The Glorious Flourish of Buddhism in India and its Ignominious Disappearance

– island.lk/the-glorious-flourish-of-buddhism-in-india-and-its-ignominious-disappearance/

• The day the editor stood in the dock!

‘How the courts protected an editor of a private newspaper’

– island.lk/the-day-the-editor-stood-in-the-dock/

• A race battling anxiety – Dutch Burghers in Lanka: a People in-between the West and the East

– dailymirror.lk/news-features/A-race-battling-anxiety/131-204161

• Google Says Will Disable Search In Australia If Forced To Pay For Content

– bizenglish.adaderana.lk/google-says-will-disable-search-in-australia-if-forced-to-pay-for-content/

_________________________________________________

• Please note our new email address: econenews@gmail.com,

and our blog: eesrilanka.wordpress.com

_________________________________________________

Published by ee ink.

This site is inspired by the dedicated scholarship and work of S.B.D. de Silva, author of "The Political Economy of Underdevelopment"

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